Getting better data for unit testing your EF Core applications

Last Updated: June 5, 2019 | Created: June 5, 2019

I was building an application using Entity Framework Core (EF Core) for a client and I needed to set up test data to mimic their production system. Their production system was quite complex with some data that was hard to generate, so writing code to set up the database was out of the question. I tried using JSON files to save data and restore data to a database and after a few tries I saw a pattern and decided to build a library to handle this problem.

My solution was to serialize the specific data from an existing database and store it as a JSON file. Then in each unit test that needed that data I deserialized the JSON file into classes and use EF Core to save it to the unit test’s database. And because I was copying from a production database which could have personal data in it I added a feature that can anonymize personal data so that no privacy laws, such as GDPR, were breached.

Rather than writing something specific for my client I decided to generalise this feature and add it to my open-source library EfCore.TestSupport. That way I, and you, can use this library to help you with create better test data for unit/performance tests, and my client gets a more comprehensive library at no extra cost.

TL; DR; – summary

  • The feature “Seed from Production” allows you to capture a “snapshot” of an existing (production) database into a JSON file which you can use to recreate the same data in a new database for testing your application.
  • This feature relies on an existing database containing the data you want to use. This means it only works for updates or rewrites of an existing application.
  • The “Seed from Production” is useful in the following cases.
    • For tests that need a lot of complex data that is hard to hand-code.
    • It provides much more representative data for system tests, performance tests and client demos.
  • The “Seed from Production” feature also includes an anonymization stage so that no personal data is stored/used in your application/test code.
  • The “Seed from Production” feature relies on EF Core’s excellent handing of saving classes with relationships to the database.
  • The “Seed from Production” feature is part of my open-source library TestSupport (Version 2.0.0 and above).

Setting the scene – why do I need better unit test data?

I spend a lot of time working on database access code (I wrote the book “Entity Framework Core in Action”) and I often have to work with large sets of data (one client’s example database was 1Tbyte in size!). If you use a database in a test, then the database must be in a known state before you start you test. In my experience what data the unit test’s needs break down into three cases:

  1. A small number of tests you can start with an empty database.
  2. Most tests only need few tables/rows of data in the database.
  3. A small set of tests need more complex set of data in the database.

Item 1, empty database, is easy to arrange: either delete/create a new database (slow) or build a wipe method to “clean” an existing database (faster). For item 2, few tables/rows, I usually write code to set up the database with the data I need – these are often extension methods with names like SeedDatabaseFourBooks or CreateDummyOrder. But when it comes to item 3, which needs complex data, it can be hard work to write and a pain to keep up to date when the database schema or data changes.

I have tried several approaches in the past (real database and run test in a transaction, database snapshots, seed from Excel file, or just write tests to handle unknown data setup). But EF Core’s excellent approach to saving classes with relationships to a database allows me to produce a better system.

Personally, I have found having data that looks real makes a difference when I am testing at every level. Yes, I can test with the book entitled “Book1” with author “Author1”, but having a book named “Domain-Driven Design” with author “Eric Evans” is easier to spot errors in. Therefore, I work to produce “real looking” data when I am testing or demonstrating an application to a client.

One obvious limitation of the “Seed from Production” approach is you do need an existing database that contains data you can copy from! Therefore, this works well when you are updating or extending an existing application. However, I have also found this useful when building a new application as the development will (should!) soon produce pre-production data that you can use.

NOTE: Some people would say you shouldn’t be accessing a database as part of a unit test, as that is an integration test. I understand their view and in some business logic I do replace the database access layer with an interface (see this section in my article about business logic). However, I am focused on building things quickly and I find using a real database makes it easier/quicker to write tests (especially if you can use an in-memory database) which means my unit test also checks that my database relationships/constraints work too.

How my “seed from production” system works

When I generalised the “seed from production” system I listed what I needed.

  • A way to read data from another database and store in a file. That way the “snapshot” data becomes part of your unit test code and is cover by source control.
  • The data may come from a production database that contains personal data. I need a way to anonymise that data before its saved to a file.
  • A way to take the stored “snapshot” and write it back out to a new database for use in tests.
  • I also needed the option to alter the “snapshot” data before it was written to the database for cases where a particular unit test needed a property(s) set to a specific value.
  • Finally, I need a system that made updating the “snapshot” data easy, as the database schema/data is likely to change often.

My “Seed from Production” feature handles all these requirements by splitting the process into two parts: an extract part, which is done once, and the seed part, which runs before each test to setup the database. The steps are:

  1. Extract part – only run if database changes.
    1. You write the code to read the data you need from the production database data.
    2. The DataResetter then:
      1. Resets the primary keys and foreign keys to default values so that EF Core will create new versions in the test database.
      2. Optionally you can anonymise specific properties that need privacy, e.g. you may want to anonymise all the names, emails, addresses etc.
    3. Converts the classes to a JSON string.
    4. Saves this JSON string to a file, typically in you unit test project.
  2. Seed database part – run at start of every unit test
    1. You need to provide an empty database for the unit test.
    2. The DataResetter reads the JSON file back into classes mapped to the database.
    3. Optionally you can “tweak” any specific data in the classes that your unit test need
    4. Then you add the data to the database and call SaveChanges.

That might sound quite complicated but most of that is done for you by the library methods. The diagram below shows the parts of the two stages to make it clearer – the parts shown as orange are the parts you need to write while the parts in blue are provided by the library.

Show me the code!

This will all make more sense when you see the code, so in the next subsections I show you the various usage of the “Seed from Production” library. They are:

  1. Extract without no anonymisation.
  2. Extract showing an example of anonymisation.
  3. Seed a unit test database, with optional update of the data.
  4. Seed database when using DDD-styled entity classes.

In all the examples I use my book app database which I used the book I wrote for Manning, “Entity Framework Core in Action”. The book app “sells” books and therefore the database contains books, with authors, reviews and possible price promotions – you can see this in the DataLayer/BookApp folder of my EfCore.TestSupport GitHub project.

NOTE: You can see a live version of the book app at

1. Extract without no anonymisation

I start with extracting data from a database stage, which only needs to be run when the database schema or data has changed. To make it simple to run I make it a unit test, but I define that test in such a way that it only runs in debug mode (that stops it being run when you run all the tests).

[RunnableInDebugOnly(DisplayName = "Needs database XYZ")]
public void ExampleExtract()
    var sqlSetup = new SqlServerProductionSetup<BookContext>
    using (var context = new BookContext(sqlSetup.Options))
        //1a. Read in the data to want to seed the database with
        var entities = context.Books
            .Include(x => x.Reviews)
            .Include(x => x.Promotion)
            .Include(x => x.AuthorsLink)
                .ThenInclude(x => x.Author)

        //1b. Reset primary and foreign keys
        var resetter = new DataResetter(context);

        //1c. Convert to JSON string
        var jsonString = entities.DefaultSerializeToJson();
        //1d. Save to JSON local file in TestData directory

The things to note are:

  • Line 1: I use the RunnableInDebugOnly attribute (available in my EfCore.TestSupport library) to stop the unit test being run in a normal run of the unit tests. This method only needs to be run if the database scheme or data changes.
  • Line 4: the SqlServerProductionSetup class takes the name of a connection in the appsetting.json file and sets up the options for the given DbContext so that you can open it.
  • Line 9 to 14: Here I read in all the books with all their relationships that I want to save.
  • Lines 17 and 18: In this case the Resetter resets the primary keys and foreign keys to their default value. You need to do this to ensure EF Core works out the relationships via the navigational properties and creates new rows for all the data.
  • Line 21: This uses a default setting for Newtonsoft.Json’s SerializeObject method. This works in most cases, but you can write your own if you need different settings.
  • Line 23: Finally, it writes the data in to a file in the TestData folder of your unit tests. You can supply any unique string which is used as part of the file name – typically I use the name of the database it came from, which the SqlServerProductionSetup class provides.

2. Extract showing an example of using anonymisation

As I said before you might need to anonymise names, emails, addresses etc. that were in your production database. The DataResetter has a simple, but powerful system that allows you to define a series of properties/classes that need anonymising.

You define a class and a property in that class to anonymise and the DataResetter will traverse the whole sequence of relationships and will reset every instance of the class+property. As you will see you can define lots of classes/properties to be anonymised.

The default anonymisation method uses GUIDs as strings, so the name “Eric Evans” would be replaced with something like “2c7211292f2341068305309ff6783764”. That’s fine but it’s not that friendly if you want to do a demo or testing in general. That is why I provide a way to replace the default anonymisation method, which I show in the example (but you don’t have to if GUID strings are OK for you).

The code below is an example of what you can do by using an external library to provide random names and places. In this implementation I use the DotNetRandomNameGenerator NuGet package and create a few different formats you can call for, such as FirstName, LastName, FullName etc.

public class MyAnonymiser
    readonly PersonNameGenerator _pGenerator;

    public MyAnonymiser(int? seed = null)
        var random = seed == null ? new Random() : new Random((int)seed);
        _pGenerator = new PersonNameGenerator(random);

    public string AnonymiseThis(AnonymiserData data, object objectInstance)
        switch (data.ReplacementType)
            case "FullName": return _pGenerator.GenerateRandomFirstAndLastName();
            case "FirstName": return _pGenerator.GenerateRandomFirstName();
            case "LastName": return _pGenerator.GenerateRandomLastName();
            case "Email": //… etc. Add more versions as needed
            default: return _pGenerator.GenerateRandomFirstAndLastName();

The things to note are:

  • Lines 5 to 9: I designed my anonymiser to take an optional number to control the output. If no number is given, then the sequence of names has a random start (i.e. it produces different names each time it is run). If a number is given, then you get the same random sequence of names every time. Useful if you want to check properties in your unit test.

NOTE: See the Seed from Production Anonymization documentation link on the AnonymiserFunc and its features. There are several pieces of information I have not described here.

The code below shows an extract method, which is very similar to the first version, but with some extra code to a) link in the MyAnonymiser, and b) defines the class+property that needs to be anonymised.

[RunnableInDebugOnly(DisplayName = "Needs database XYZ")]
public void ExampleExtractWithAnonymiseLinkToLibrary()
    var sqlSetup = new SqlServerProductionSetup<BookContext>
    using (var context = new BookContext(sqlSetup.Options))
        //1a. Read in the data to want to seed the database with
        var entities = context.Books
            .Include(x => x.Reviews)
            .Include(x => x.Promotion)
            .Include(x => x.AuthorsLink)
                .ThenInclude(x => x.Author)

        //1b-ii. Set up resetter config to use own method
        var myAnonymiser = new MyAnonymiser(42);
        var config = new DataResetterConfig
            AnonymiserFunc = myAnonymiser.AnonymiseThis
        //1b-ii. Add all class/properties that you want to anonymise
        config.AddToAnonymiseList<Author>(x => x.Name, "FullName");
        config.AddToAnonymiseList<Review>(x => x.VoterName, "FirstName");
        //1b. Reset primary and foreign keys and anonymise given class+property
        var resetter = new DataResetter(context, config);

        //1c. Convert to JSON string
        var jsonString = entities.DefaultSerializeToJson();
        //1d. Save to JSON local file in TestData directory

The things to note are:

  • Line 17: I create MyAnonymiser, and in this case I provide a see number. This means the same sequence of random names will be created whenever the extract is run. This can be useful if you access the anonymised properties in your unit test.
  • Lines 18 to 21: I override the default AnonymiserFunc by creating a DataResetterConfig class and setting the AnonymiserFunc properly to my replacement AnonymiserFunc from my MyAnonymiser class.
  • Lines 23 and 24: I add two class+property items that should be anonymised via the AddToAnonymiseList<T> method in the DataResetterConfig instance. As you can see you can provide a string that defines what type of replacement you want. In this case the Author’s Name needs a full name, e.g. “Jon Smith” and the Review’s VoterName just needs a first name, e.g. Jane.
  • Line 26: The creation of the DataResetter now has a second parameter with the DataResetterConfig instance with the new AnonymiserFunc.

All the rest of the method is the same.

NOTE: The ResetKeysEntityAndRelationships method follows all the navigational links so every instance of the given class+property that is linked to the root class will be reset. It also uses Reflection, so it can anonymise properties which have private setters.

3. Seed a unit test database from the JSON file

Now I show you a typical unit test where I seed the database from the data stored in the JSON file. In this case using a Sqlite in-memory, which is very fast to setup and run (see my article “Using in-memory databases for unit testing EF Core applications” for when and how you can use this type of database for unit testing).

public void ExampleSeedDatabase()
    var options = SqliteInMemory.CreateOptions<BookContext>();
    using (var context = new BookContext(options))
        //2a. make sure you have an empty database
        //2b. read the entities back from the JSON file
        var entities = "ExampleDatabase".ReadSeedDataFromJsonFile<List<Book>>();
        //2c. Optionally “tweak” any specific data in the classes that your unit test needs
        entities.First().Title = "new title";
        //2d. Add the data to the database and save

        //... run your tests here

        //... verify your tests worked here

The things to note are:

  • Line 9. In this case I am using an in-memory database, so it will be empty. If you are using a real database, then normally clear the database before you start so that the unit tests as a “known” starting point. (Note that you don’t have to clear the database for the seed stage to work – it will just keep adding a new copy of the snapshot every time, but your unit test database will grow over time.)
  • Line 11: my ReadSeedDataFromJsonFile extension method reads the json file with the reference “ExampleDatabase” (which was the name of the database that was imported – see extract code) and uses Newtonsoft.Json’s DeserializeObject method to turn the JSON back into entity classes with relationships.
  • Line 13: Optionally you might need to tweak the data specifically for the test you are going to run. That’s easy as you have access to the classes at this stage.
  • Line 15. You use Add, or AddRange if it’s a collection, to Add the new classes to the database.
  • Line 16. The last step is to call SaveChanges to get all the entities and relationships created in the database. EF Core will follow all the navigational links, like Reviews, to work out what is linked to what and set up the primary keys/foreign keys as required.
  • Lines 19 onward. This is where your tests and asserts go in your unit test.

4. Seed database when using DDD-styled entity classes

If you have read any of my other articles you will know I am a great fan of DDD-styled entity classes (see my article “Creating Domain-Driven Design entity classes with Entity Framework Core” for more about this). So, of course, I wanted the Seed from Production feature to work with DDD-styled classes, which it does now, but you do need to be careful so here are some notes about things.

Problem occur if Newtonsoft.Json can’t find a way to set a property at serialization time. This fooled me for quite a while (see the issue I raised on Newtonsoft.Json GitHub). The solution I came up with was adding a setting to the serialization (and deserialization) that tells Newtonsoft.Json that it can set via private setters. This works for me (including private fields mapped to IEnumerable), but in case you have a more complex state there are other ways to set this up. The most useful is to create a private constructor with parameters that match the properties by type and name, and then place a [JsonConstructor] attribute on that constructor (there are other ways too – look at Newtonsoft.Json docs).

NOTE: The symptoms of Newtonsoft.Json failing to serialize because it can’t access a property aren’t that obvious. In one case Newtonsoft.Json threw an unexplained “Self referencing loop detected” exception. And when I changed the JsonSerializerSettings to ignore self-referencing loops it incorrectly serialized the data by adding a duplicate (!). You can see the gory details in the issue I raised on Newtonsoft.Json.

Aside – how does this seeding work?

NOTE: This is an optional section – I thought you might like to learn something about EF Core and how it handles classes with relationships (known as “navigational links” in EF Core).

You may be wondering how this seeding feature works – basically it relies on some magic that EF Core performs.

  1. Firstly, EF Core must work out what State a class is in, e.g. is it an Added (new) entry or an existing (tracked) entry, which tells it whether it needs to create a new entry or just refer to an existing entry in the database. This means EF Core sets the state of the class instance coming from the json as Added and will write them out tot the database.
  2. The second part is how EF Core works out the relationships between each class instance. Because the ResetKeysEntityAndRelationships method reset the foreign keys (and the primary keys) EF Core relies on the navigational properties to work out the relationships between each class instance.

These two things mean that the database is updated with the correct data and foreign keys, even if the relationships are complex. This is feature makes EF Core so nice to work with not just in this feature but for any adding or updating of linked classes.

Here is a simple example taking from one of my talks with the code and two diagrams showing you the before and after. In this case I create a new book, with a new many-to-many BookAuthor to an existing Author.

var existingAuthor = context.Authors.First();
var newBook = new Book { Title = “New Book”};
newBook.AuthorLinks = new List<BookAuthor>
     new BookAuthor
          Book = newBook, 
          Author = existingAuthor, 
          Order = 1

After that the classes look like this: note red classed are new, while blue have been read from the database (i.e. are tracked by EF Core).

Then we save this to the database with the following code.


After that the classes would look like this, with all the primary and foreign keys filled in and all navigational links set up.

EF Core has done the following to make this work:

  1. During the Add stage is sets up all the navigation links and copies the primary keys of existing instances into the correct foreign keys (in this case the Author’s existing primary key into the AuthorId foreign key in the BookAuthor class).
  2. In the SaveChanges part it does the following within a transaction
    1. It inserts a new row for this Book, which sets its primary key
    2. It then copies the Book’s primary key into the BookId foreign key in the BookAuthor class.
    3. It then inserts a new row for the BookAuthor class.

This makes handling linked classes so simple in EF Core.


As I said earlier I had tried over the years different ways to set up complex databases, both with ADO.NET and EF6.x. EF Core has a number of features (good access to the database schema and better handling of adding linked classes to a database) which now make this much easier to implement a generic solution to this problem.

For my client the “Seed from Production” feature works really well. Their database contains data that is hard to create manually, and a pain to keep up to date as the application grows. By copying a database set up by the existing application we captured the data to use in our unit tests and some performance tests too. Also, the test data becomes part of the test code and therefore covered by the standard source control system. Another bonus is it makes it simple to run any tests in a DevOps pipeline as the test databases as it can be created and seeded automatically, which saves use from having to have specific database available in the DevOps path.

You won’t need this feature much, as most unit tests should use very basic data, but for those complex systems where setting up the database is complicated then this library can save you (and me) lots of time. And with anonymisation stage happening before the json file is created you don’t have to worry about having personal data in your unit tests.

Happy coding!


GenericServices Design Philosophy + tips and techniques

Last Updated: May 22, 2019 | Created: April 3, 2019

I read Jimmy Bogard’s article called “AutoMapper’s Design Philosophy”, which he wrote to help people understand what job AutoMapper was designed to do. This sort of article helps people who get frustrated with AutoMapper because they are trying to use it to do something it wasn’t really designing to do. I use AutoMapper in my libraries and I was glad to see my usage is right in line with what AutoMapper is designed to do.

I thought I would write a similar article for my GenericServices library (see summary for what GenericServices does) to help anyone who uses, or wants to use my GenericServices library (and associated libraries). While the use of my GenericServices library is tiny compared to AutoMapper (about 0.05% of AutoMapper’s downloads!) I too have issues or requests for features that don’t fit into what GenericServices’s is designed to do. Hopefully this article will help people understand my GenericServices library better, and I also add a few tips and techniques that I have found useful too.

Other related articles in this series:

TL; DR; – Summary

  • The GenericServices library is designed to speed up the development of building front-end Entity Framework 6 and Entity Framework Core (EF Core) databases accesses.
  • GenericServices does this by automating the mapping of database classes to DTOs (Data Transfer Object, also known as a ViewModel in ASP.NET) in a way that builds efficient database accesses.
  • My personal experience I would say that my GenericServices library saved me 2 months of development time over a 12-month period.
  • GenericServices also has a feature where it can work with Domain-Driven Design (DDD) styled EF Core database classes. It can find and call methods or constructors inside a DDD-styled EF Core database class. That gives very good control over creates and updates.
  • This article tells you what GenericServices can, and cannot, do.
  • I then list five GenericServices tips and techniques that I use when using this library.

Setting the scene – what does GenericServices do?

TIP: This is a shortened version of a section from the introduction article on EFcore.GenericServices. The original has more code in it.

GenericServices is designed to make writing front-end CRUD (Create, Read, Update and Delete) EF Core database accesses much easier. It handles both the database access code and the “adaption” of the database data to what the front-end of your application needs. It does this by providing a library with methods for Create, Read, Update and Delete that uses either a EF Core database class or a DTO (Data Transfer Object, also known as a ViewModel in ASP.NET) to define what EF Core class is involved and what data needs to be read or written.

I’m going to take page used to update a database class to describe the typical issues that come up. My example application is an e-commerce site selling technical books and I implement a feature where an authorised user can add a sales promotion to a book, by reducing its price. The ASP.NET Core web page is shown below with the user’s input in red and comments on the left about the Book properties and how they are involved in the update.

In a web/mobile application a feature like this consists of two stages:

1. Read data to display

The display to the user needs five properties taken from the Book and I use a DTO (Data Transfer Object, also known as a ViewModel) than contains the five properties I want out of the Book entity class. GenericServices uses AutoMapper to build a query using LINQ which EF Core turns into an efficient SQL SELECT command that just reads the five columns. Below is the DTO, with the empty interface ILinkToEntity<TEntity> (see line 1) that GenericServices uses to find and map the DTO to the EF Core classes.

public class AddPromotionDto : ILinkToEntity<Book>
    public int BookId { get; set; }

    [ReadOnly(true)] // Tells GenericServices not copy this back to the database
    public decimal OrgPrice { get; set; }

    [ReadOnly(true)] //Tells GenericServices not copy this back to the database
    public string Title { get; set; }

    public decimal ActualPrice { get; set; }

    [Required(AllowEmptyStrings = false)]
    public string PromotionalText { get; set; }

Below is the GenericService code that reads in data into the DTO, with the id holding the Book’s primary key (see this link for full list of all the code)

var dto = _service.ReadSingle<AddPromotionDto>(id);

NOTE: AutoMapper is great for “Flattening” relationships, that is it can pick properties/columns in related classes – see the article “Building high performance database queries using Entity Framework Core and AutoMapper” for more on this.

2. Update the data

The second part is the update of the Book class with the new ActualPrice and the PromotionalText. This requires a) the Book entity to be read in, b) the Book entity to be updated with the two new values, and c) the updated Book entity to be written back to the database. Below is the GenericService code that does this (see this link for full list of all the code)


Overall the two GenericService calls replaces about 15 lines of hand-written code that does the same thing.

The problem that GenericServices is aimed at solving

I built GenericServices to make me faster at building .NET applications and to remove some of the tedious coding (e.g. LINQ Selects with lots of properties) around building front-end CRUD EF Core database accesses. Because I care about performance I designed the library to build efficient database accesses using the LINQ Select command, i.e. only loading the properties/columns that are needed.

With the release of EF Core, I rewrote the library (GenericServices (EF6) -> EfCore.GenericServices) and added new features to work with a Domain-Driven Design (DDD) styled database classes. DDD-styled database classes give much better control over how creates and updates are done.

GenericServices is meant to make the simple-to-moderate complexity database reads easy to build. It can also handle all deletes and some single-class creates and updates with normal database classes, but because EfCore.GenericServices supports DDD-styled database classes it can call constructors/methods which can handle every type of create or update.

Overall, I find GenericServices will handle more than 60% of all front-end CRUD accesses, but with DDD-styled database classes this goes up to nearly 80%. It’s only the really complex reads/writes that can be easier to write by hand, and some of those write should really be classed as business logic anyway. The trick is to know when to use GenericServices, and when to hand-code the database access – I cover that next.

What EfCore.GenericServices can/cannot handle

OK, let’s get down to the details of what GenericServices can and cannot do, with a list for good/bad usages.

GenericServices is GOOD at:

  • All reads that use flattening (see Note1)
  • All deletes
  • Create/Update
    • Normal (i.e. non-DDD) database classes: of a single class (see Note2)
    • DDD-styled database classes: any create/update.

GenericServices is BAD at:

  • Any read that needs extra EF Core commands like .Include(), .Load(), etc. (see Note1)
  • Create/Update
    • Normal (i.e. non-DDD) database classes: with relationships (see Note2)

Note1: Read – flatten, not Include.

The GenericServices reads are designed for sending to a display page or a Web API, and I can normally implement any such read by using AutoMapper’s “Flattening” feature. However, sometimes the effort to set up special AutoMapper’s configurations (see docs) can take more effort than just hand-coding the read. Don’t be afraid to build your own read queries if this simpler for you.

You cannot use GenericServices for reads that needs .Include(), .Load(), etc. Typically that sort of read is used in business logic and I have a separate library called EfCore.GenericBizRunner for handling that (see articles “A library to run your business logic when using Entity Framework Core” and “Architecture of Business Layer working with Entity Framework (Core and v6)” for more about handling business logic).

NOTE: Using .Include(), Load() or Lazy Loading is inefficient for a simple read as it means you are either loading data you don’t need, and/or making multiple trips to the database, which is slow.

Note2: Create/Update – single or relationships

When using normal (non-DDD) database classes GenericServices will only create/update a single class mapped to the database via EF Core. However, you can get around this because GenericServices is designed to work with a certain style of DDD entity classes, i.e. GenericServices can find and call constructors or methods inside your EF Core class to do a create or update, which allows your code to handle any level of complexity of a create or update.

GenericServices also gives you the option to validate the data that is written to the database (off by default – turn on via the GenericServiceConfig class). This, coupled with DDD constructor/methods, allows you to write complex validation and checks. However, if I think the code is getting too much like business logic then I use EfCore.GenericBizRunner.

Tips and Techniques

Clearly really know my library very well, and I can do things other’s might not think of. This is a list of things I have do that you might find useful. Here is a list to save you scrolling down to see what’s there.

  1. Try using DDD-styled entity classes with EfCore.GenericServices
  2. Don’t try to use GenericServices for business logic database accesses
  3. How to filter, order, page a GenericService read query
  4. Helper library for using GenericServices with ASP.NET Core Web API
  5. How to unit test your GenericServices code

a. Try using DDD-styled entity classes with EfCore.GenericServices

Personally, I have moved over to using DDD-styled database classes with EF Core, so let me explain the differences/advantages of DDD.

Non-DDD classes have properties with public setters, i.e. anyone can alter a property, while DDD-styled classes have private setters which means you must use a constructor or a method to create/update a property/ies. So DDD-styled classes “locks down” any changes so that no one can bypass the create/update code in that class (see my article “Creating Domain-Driven Design entity classes with Entity Framework Core” for more on this).

Yes, DDD-styled database classes do take some getting used to, but it gives you an unparallel level of control over create/update, including altering not only properties but relationships as well. EfCore.GenericServices works with DDD-styled EF Core classes and finds constructors/methods by matching the parameter name/types (see GenericServices DDD docs here).

b. Don’t try to use GenericServices for business logic database accesses

When I think about database accesses in an application I separate them into two types:

  • CRUD database accesses done by the front-end, e.g. read this, update that, delete the other.
  • Business logic database accesses, e.g. create an order, calculate the price, update the stock status.

The two types of accesses are often different – CRUD front-end is about simple and efficient database accesses, while business logic database accesses are about rules and processes. GenericServices is designed for CRUD database for the front-end and won’t do a good job for business logic database accesses – I use my GenericBizRunner library for that.

Sure, it can get hazy as to whether a database access is a simple CRUD access or business logic – for instance is changing the price of an item a simple CRUD update or a piece of business logic? However, there are some actions, like update the stock status which can trigger a restocking order, that are clearly business logic and should be handled separately (see my article “Architecture of Business Layer working with Entity Framework (Core and v6)” on how I handle business logic).

There are two things that GenericService + DDD-styled database classes can’t do:

  1. GenericServices doesn’t support async calls to methods in a DDD-styled database class. I could support it but I held off for now. If I feel I need Async I use my GenericBizRunner, which has very good async handling throughout.
  2. The constructors/methods in a DDD-styled database class can’t easily have dependency injection added (you could, but you would be pushing the whole DDD pattern a bit to far). You might like to read my article “Three approaches to Domain-Driven Design with Entity Framework Core” and make your own mind up as to whether you want to do that.

c. How to filter, order, page a GenericService read query

The EfCore.GenericServices’s ReadManyNoTracked<T>() method returns an IQueryable<T> result, which allows you to filter, order, page the data after it has been projected into the DTO. By adding LINQ commands after the ReadManyNoTracked method EF Core will turn them into efficient SQL commands. You then end the query with something like .ToList() or .ToListAsync() to trigger the database access.

Filtering etc. after the mapping to the DTO normally covers 90% of your query manipulation but what happens if you need to filter or change a read prior to the projection to the DTO? Then you need ProjectFromEntityToDto<TEntity,TDto>(preDtoLinqQuery).

The ProjectFromEntityToDto method is useful if you:

  • Want to filter on properties that isn’t in the DTO version.
  • Want to apply the method .IgnoreQueryFilters() to the entity to turn off any Query Filter on the entity, say if you were using a Query Filters for soft delete.

NOTE: If you are using Query Filters then all the EfCore.GenericServices’s methods obey the query filter, apart from the method DeleteWithActionAndSave. This turns OFF any query filters so that you can delete anything – you should provide an action that checks the user is allowed to delete the specific entry.

d. Helper library for using GenericServices with ASP.NET Core Web Core

I use ASP.NET at lot over the years and I have generated several patterns for handling GenericServices (and GenericBizRunner), especially around Web APIs. I have now packaged these patterns into a companion library called EfCore.GenericServices.AspNetCore.

For ASP.NET MVC and Razor Pages the EfCore.GenericServices.AspNetCore has a CopyErrorsToModelState extension method that copies GenericServices’s status into the ASP.NET Core Model so they become validation errors.

The features for Web API are quite comprehensive.

  • GenericServices supports JSON Patch for updates – see my article “Pragmatic Domain-Driven Design: supporting JSON Patch in Entity Framework Core” for full details of this feature.
  • For Web API it can turn GenericServices’s status into the correct response type, with HTTP code, success/errors parts and any result to send. This makes for very short Web API method with a clearly defined output type for Swagger – see example below
public async Task<ActionResult<WebApiMessageAndResult<TodoItem>>> 
    GetAsync(int id, [FromServices]ICrudServicesAsync service)
    return service.Response(
        await service.ReadSingleAsync<TodoItem>(id));

For more on EfCore.GenericServices and ASP.NET Core Web APIs have a look at my article “How to write good, testable ASP.NET Core Web API code quickly

e. How to unit test your GenericServices code

I’m a big fan of unit testing, but I also what to write my tests quickly. I therefore have built-in methods to help to unit test code that uses EfCore.GenericServices. I also have a whole library called EfCore.TestSupport to help with unit testing any code that uses EF Core.

EfCore.GenericServices has a number of methods that will set up the data that GenericServices would normally get via dependency injection (DI). See line 11 for one such method in the code below. The other methods, like SqliteInMemory.CreateOptions on line 5, come from my EfCore.TestSupport library.

public void TestProjectBookTitleSingleOk()
    var options = SqliteInMemory.CreateOptions<EfCoreContext>();
    using (var context = new EfCoreContext(options))

        var utData = context.SetupSingleDtoAndEntities<BookTitle>();
        var service = new CrudServices(context, utData.Wrapped);

        var dto = service.ReadSingle<BookTitle>(1);


I also added a ResponseDecoders class containing a number of extension method to my EfCore.GenericServices.AspNetCore that will turn a Web API response created by that library back into its component parts. This makes testing Web API methods simpler. This link to a set of unit tests gives you an idea of how you could use the extension methods in integration testing.

Also see the unit testing section of my  article “How to write good, testable ASP.NET Core Web API code quickly”.


I hope this article helps people to get the best out of my EfCore.GenericServices library and associated libraries like EfCore.GenericServices.AspNetCore and EfCore.GenericBizRunner. All these libraries were built to make me faster at developing applications, and also to remove some of the tedious coding so I can get on with coding the parts that need real thought.

The important section is “What EfCore.GenericServices can/cannot handle”  which tells you what the library can and cannot do. Also note my comments on the difference between front-end CRUD (GenericServices) and business logic (GenericBizRunner). If you stay in the “sweet spot” of each of these libraries, then they will work well for you. But don’t be afraid to abandon either library and write your own code if it’s easier or clearer – pick the approach that is clear, but fast to develop.

I also hope the tips and techniques will alert you to extra parts of the EfCore.GenericServices library that you might not know about. I used my libraries on many projects and learnt a lot. The list are some things I learnt to look out for and links to other libraries/techniques that help me be a fast developer.

Happy coding.

Decoding Entity Framework Core logs into runnable SQL

Created: March 20, 2019

This isn’t one of my long articles, but just a bit of fun I had trying to convert Entity Framework Core’s (EF Core) CommandExecuted logs back into real SQL. EF Core’s logging is much improved over EF6.x and it returns very readable SQL (see this example below)

var id = 1;
var book = context.Books.Single(x => x.BookId == id);

Produces this log output

Executed DbCommand (1ms) [Parameters=[@__id_0='1'],
    CommandType='Text', CommandTimeout='30']
SELECT TOP(2) [p].[BookId], [p].[Description], [p].[ImageUrl]
    , [p].[Price], [p].[PublishedOn], [p].[Publisher]
    , [p].[SoftDeleted], [p].[Title]
FROM [Books] AS [p]
WHERE ([p].[SoftDeleted] = 0) AND ([p].[BookId] = @__id_0)

Now I spend quite a bit of time understanding and performance tuning EF Core code, so it’s very useful if I can copy & paste the SQL into something like Microsoft’s SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS) to see how they perform. The problem is I have to hand-edit the SQL to add the correct values to replace any parameters (see @__id_0 in last code).

So, in my spare time (??), I decided to try to create some code that would automatically replace the property reference with the actual value. It turns out it’s quite difficult and you can’t quite get everything right, but its good enough to help in lots of places. Here is the story of how I added this feature to my EfCore.TestSupport library.

The steps to building a my DecodeMessage method

The steps I needed to do were:

  1. Capture EF Core’s logging output
  2. Turn on EnableSensitiveDataLogging
  3. Catch any EF Core CommandExecuted logs
  4. Decode the Parameters
  5. Replace any property references in the SQL with the ‘correct’ parameter value

Now I did say I was going to keep this article short so I’m going to give you some code that handles the first three parts. You can see the EnableSensitiveDataLogging method near the end of building the options.

var logs = new List<LogOutput>();
var options = new DbContextOptionsBuilder<BookContext>()
    .UseLoggerFactory(new LoggerFactory(new[] 
          { new MyLoggerProviderActionOut(l => logs.Add(l))}))
using (var context = new BookContext(options)) 
    //… now start using context

NOTE: Sensitive data logging is fine in your unit tests, but you should NOT have sensitive data logging turned on in production. Logging the actual data used is a security risk and could break some user privacy rules like GPRS.

In fact I have methods in my EFCore.TestSupport library that handle building the options and turning on sensitive logging, plus a load of other things. Here is an example of one helper that creates an in-memory database options, with logging.

var logs = new List<LogOutput>();
var options = SqliteInMemory.CreateOptionsWithLogging
     <BookContext>(log => logs.Add(log));
using (var context = new BookContext(options)) 
    //… now start using context

The EfCore.TestSupport library has another version of this that works for SQL Server. It creates a unique database name per class, or per method, because xUnit (the favourite unit test framework for NET Core) runs each test class in parallel.

NOTE: The EfCore.TestSupport uses a logging provider that calls an action method for every log. This makes it easy to write logs to the console, or capture them into list.

Decoding the Parameters

Having captured the EF Core’s logs now I need to decode the first line that has the parameters. There are a few permutations, but it’s clear that Regex is the way to go. This problem is I’m not an expert on Regex, but LinqPad came to my rescue!

LinqPad 5.36 has a very nice Regex tool – the best I have found so far.  Here is a screenshot of its regex feature, which is called up via Ctrl+Shift+F1.

WARNING: It’s a great tool, but I thought if I saved the code it would keep the pattern I had created, but it doesn’t. I spent hours getting the regex right and then lost it when I entered something else. Now I know its all OK, but be warned.

All my trials came up with the following Regex code

new Regex(@"(@p\d+|@__\w*?_\d+)='(.*?)'(\s\(\w*?\s=\s\w*\))*(?:,\s|\]).*?");

If you don’t know regex then it won’t mean anything to you, but it does the job of finding the a) param name, b) param value, and c) extra information on the parameter (like its size). You can see the whole decode code here.

Limitations of the decoding

It turns out that EF Core’s logged data doesn’t quite give you all you need to perfectly decode the log back to correct SQL. Here are the limitations I found:

  1. You can’t distinguish the different between an empty string and a null string, both are represented by ”. I decided to make ” return NULL.
  2. You can’t work out if it’s a byte[] or not, so byte[] is treated as a SQL string. This will FAIL in SQL Server.
  3. You can’t tell if something is a Guid, DateTime etc., which in SQL Server need ” around them. In the end I wrapped most things in ”, including numbers. SQL Server accepts numbers as strings (but other databases won’t).

Example of a different decoded SQL

If we go back to the book lookup at the start of this article then the decoded result is shown below

SELECT TOP(2) [p].[BookId], [p].[Description]
   , [p].[ImageUrl], [p].[Price], [p].[PublishedOn]
   , [p].[Publisher], [p].[SoftDeleted], [p].[Title]
FROM [Books] AS [p]
WHERE ([p].[SoftDeleted] = 0) AND ([p].[BookId] = '1') 

As you can see on the last line the integer is represented as a string. This isn’t the normal way to do this but works in SQL Server. I took the decision to wrap things that I didn’t think were strings because this what is needed to make other types, such as GUIDs, Datetime etc. to work.

My really complex test contained lots of different NET Types, and here is the output.

INSERT INTO [AllTypesEntities] ([MyAnsiNonNullString]
    , [MyBool], [MyBoolNullable], [MyByteArray], [MyDateTime]
    , [MyDateTimeNullable], [MyDateTimeOffset], [MyDecimal]
    , [MyDouble], [MyGuid], [MyGuidNullable], [MyInt]
    , [MyIntNullable], [MyString], [MyStringEmptyString]
    , [MyStringNull], [MyTimeSpan])
VALUES ('ascii only', 1, NULL, '0x010203', '2000-01-02T00:00:00',
NULL, '2004-05-06T00:00:00.0000000+01:00', '3456.789', '5678.9012', 
'ba65d636-65d4-4c07-8ddc-50c615cef539', NULL, '1234', NULL, 
'string with '' in it', NULL, NULL, '04:05:06');
FROM [AllTypesEntities]
WHERE @@ROWCOUNT = 1 AND [Id] = scope_identity(); 

In this complex version the parts that fail are:

  1. The MyByteArray has ” around it and FAILS – taking off the string delimiters fixes that.
  2. The MyStringEmptyString is set to NULL instead of an empty string.

Not perfect, but quite usable.

How can you access this code?

If you just want to use this feature its build into the latest EfCore.TestSupport NuGet package (1.7.0 to be precise). Its build into the LogOutput class which is used by the loggers in this library. There are methods that create options for SQLite (in-memory) and SQL Server database that allow logging. There are plenty of examples of these in the library – have a look at the unit tests for this in the TestEfLoggingDecodeBookContext class.

If you want to play with the code yourself then take a copy of the EfCoreLogDecoder class which contains the decode parts.


Well it was a bit of fun, maybe not something I would do on a job but still a useful tool. I was a bit disappointed I couldn’t decode the log completely but what it does is still useful to me. Maybe you will find it useful to you too.

Now I need to get back to my real work for my clients. See you on the other side!

Happy coding.

Building a robust CQRS database with EF Core and Cosmos DB

Last Updated: December 24, 2019 | Created: February 23, 2019

Back in 2017 I wrote about a system I built using EF Core 2.0 which used Command and Query Responsibility Segregation (CQRS) pattern that combines a SQL Server write database a RavenDB NoSQL read database. The title of the article is “EF Core – Combining SQL and NoSQL databases for better performance” and it showed this combination gave excellent read-side performance.

Ever since then I have been eagerly waiting for Entity Framework Core’s (EF Core) support of Cosmos DB NoSQL database, which is in preview in EF Core 2.2. RavenDB worked well but having a NoSQL database that EF Core can use natively makes it a whole lot easier to implement, as you will see in this article.

I’m writing this using the early EF Core 2.2.0-preview3 release of the Cosmos database provider. This preview works but is slow, so I won’t be focusing on performance (I’ll write a new article on that when the proper Cosmos DB provider is out in EF Core 3). What I will focus on is providing a robust implementation which ensures that the two databases are kept in step.


There is a new article called “An in-depth study of Cosmos DB and the EF Core 3.0 database provider” that looks at what happened when I updated the EF Core to 3.0 with the first non-preview Cosmos DB database provider.

The original CQRS design had a problem if the NoSQL RavenDB update failed: at that point the two databases were out of sync. That was always nagging me, and Roque L Lucero P called me out on this issue on the original article (see this set of comments on that topic). I decided to wait until EF Core support of Cosmos DB was out (that has taken longer than originally thought) and fix this problem when I did the Cosmos DB rewrite, which I have now done.

NOTE: This article comes with a repo containing all the code and a fully functional example – see You can run the code need SQL Server (localdb is fine) and the Cosmos DB emulator. It will auto-seed the database on startup. This repo has been updated to EF Core 3.0 and the old EF Core 2.2 is in a seperate brnach called NetCore2_2Version.

TR; DR; – summary

  • For an introduction to CQRS pattern read this excellent article on the Microsoft’s site.
  • I implement a two-database CQRS pattern, with the write database being a relational (SQL Server) database and the read database being a NoSQL database (Cosmos DB).
  • This type of CQRS scheme should improve the performance of read-heavy applications, but it is not useful to write-heavy applications (because the writes take longer).
  • My implementation uses EF Core 2.2 with the preview Cosmos database provider.
  • I implement the update of the NoSQL inside EF Core’s SaveChanges methods. This means a developer cannot forget to update the read-side database because its done for them by the code inside SaveChanges.
  • I use a SQL transaction to make sure that both the SQL and the NoSQL database updates are both done together. This means the two databases with always be in step.
  • This design of CQRS pattern is suitable for adding to a system later in its development to fix specific performance issues.
  • There is an example application on GitHub available to go with this article.
  • There is a new article called “An in-depth study of Cosmos DB and the EF Core 3.0 database provider” which covers the update to EF Core 3.0

Setting the scene – using caching to improve read performance

You can skip this section if you already understand caching and the CQRS pattern.

In many applications the database accesses can be a bottleneck on performance, i.e. the speed and scalability of the application. When using EF Core there are lots of things you can do to improve the performance of database accesses, and its also really easy to do things that give you terrible performance.

There are only two hard things in Computer Science: cache invalidation and naming things. – Phil Karlton.But what do you do when even the best SQL database queries are deemed “too slow”? One typical approach is to add caching to your application, which holds a copy of some data in a form that can be accessed quicker than the original source. This is very useful, but making sure your cached version is always up to date is very hard (the Phil Karton quote comes from an article on CQRS written by Mateusz Stasch)

Caching can occur in lots of places, but in this article I cover caching at the database level. At the database level the caching is normally done by building “ready to display” versions for data. This works well where the read requires data from multiple tables and/or time-consuming calculations. In my book “Entity Framework Core in Action” I use a book selling application (think super-simple Amazon) as an example because it contains some complex calculations (form the list of authors, calculate the average review stars etc.). You can see a live version of the book app at

You can do this yourself by building a pre-calculated version of the book list display (I did it in section 13.4 of my book), but its hard work and requires lots of concurrency handling to ensure that the pre-calculated version is always updated property. But the CQRS pattern makes this easier to do because it splits the write and read operations. That makes it simpler to catch the writes and deliver the reads. See the figure taken from Microsoft’s CQRS article  (See this link for authors and Creative Commons Attribution Licence for this figure).

A further step I have taken is to have two databases – one for write and one for reads. In my case the read data store is a Azure Cosmos DB – according to Microsoft an “highly responsive, low latency, high availability, scalable” NoSQL database. The figure below gives you a high-level view of what I am going to describe.

The rest of the article describes how to build a two-database CQRS database pattern using EF Core with its new support for the Cosmos DB NoSQL database. The design also includes one way to handle the “cache invalidation” problem inherent in having the same data in two forms, hence the “robust” word in the title.

Describing the software structure

With any performance tuning you need to be clear what you are trying to achieve. In this case my tests show it gets slow as I add lots of books but buying a book (i.e. creating a customer order) is quick enough. I therefore decide to minimise the amount of development work and only apply the CQRS approach for the book list, leaving the book buying process as it was. This gives me a software structure where I have one Data Layer, but it has two part: SQL Server (orange) and Cosmos DB (purple).

I am really pleased to see that I can add a CQRS implementation only where I really need it. This has two big benefits:

  • I only need to add the complexity of CQRS where it’s needed.
  • I can add a CQRS system to an existing application to just performance tune specific areas.

Most applications I see have lots of database accesses and many of them are admin-type accesses which are needed, but their performance isn’t that important. This means I only really want to add CQRS where it’s needed, because adding CQRS is more work and more testing. I want to be smart as to where I spend my time writing code and many database accesses don’t need the performance improvements (and complexities!) that CQRS provides.

But the best part is by implementing my CQRS system inside EF Core’s SaveChanges methods I know that any existing database changes HAS to go though me code. That means if I’m adding my CQRS system to an existing project I know I can catch all the updates so my NoSQL (cache) values will be up to date.

Making my update robust – use a transaction

As well as using the new Cosmos DB database provider in EF Core I also want to fix the problem I had in my first version of this CQRS, two-database pattern. In the previous design the two database could get out of step if the write to the NoSQL database failed. If that happens then you have a real problem: the book information you are showing to your users is incorrect. That could cause problems with your customers, especially if the price on the book list is lower that the price at checkout time!

There are lots of ways to handle this problem, but I used a feature available to me because I am using a SQL database as my primary database – a SQL transaction (see previous diagram). This is fairly easy to do, but it does have some down (and up) sides. The main one is that the write of data is slower because SaveChanges only returns when both writes have finished. But there is an up side to this: it solves what is known as the “eventually consistent” problem where you do an update but when the app returns the data on your screen hasn’t updated yet.

Jimmy Bogard has an excellent series called “Life Beyond Distributed Transactions: An Apostate’s Implementation” in the 8th article in the series he talks about using a transaction in a SQL database to ensure the second update is done before exiting. Jimmy is very clear that too many people ignore these errors – as he says in his tweet “hope is not a strategy”!

Jimmy’s approach is easy to understand, but if I used his approach I would have to find and replace every update path with some special code. In EF Core I can fix that by moving the code inside the SaveChanges methods, which means all the checks and updates are done whenever I create, update or delete anything that would change the book list display. That way I, or any of my colleagues, can’t forget to do the NoSQL update.

Let’s get into the code!

The whole process is contained in the SaveChanges (sync and async) methods. Below is the sync SaveChanges code.

public override int SaveChanges(bool acceptAllChangesOnSuccess)
    if (_bookUpdater == null)
        //if no bookUpdater then run as normal
        return base.SaveChanges(acceptAllChangesOnSuccess);

        var thereAreChanges = _bookUpdater
        //This stops ChangeTracker being called twice
        ChangeTracker.AutoDetectChangesEnabled = false;
        if (!thereAreChanges)
            return base.SaveChanges(acceptAllChangesOnSuccess);
        return _bookUpdater
               () = base.SaveChanges(acceptAllChangesOnSuccess));
        ChangeTracker.AutoDetectChangesEnabled = true;

There are lots of lines, many of them are to make the code run efficiently, but in the code there are two methods that manage the book list update.

  • FindBookChangesToProjectToNoSql (Lines 8 and 9). This uses EF Core’ ChangeTracker to find changes to entity classes that will affect the book list display.
  • CallBaseSaveChangesAndNoSqlWriteInTransaction (lines ?? to ??). This is only called if NoSQL writes are needed and it handles the secure update of both the SQL database and the Cosmos database.

Now we will look at the two parts – finding the changes and then saving the changes securely.

Finding the book changes

Finding the book changes is complex, but this article is really about making a robust CQRS system with Cosmos DB, so I’m only going to skip over this code and just give you a diagram of how the entity’s State is used to decide what changes should be applied to the NoSQL database.

The diagram starts with the book list that the NoSQL database is going to provide with the list of entity’s that effect that book list. The table at the bottom shows how I use the entity’s State to decide what changes need to be applied to the NoSQL database.

The basic idea is the Book’s State takes precedent, with changes in the associated relationships only causing an update to the book list. There are some subtle items, especially around soft delete, which you can see in the BookChangeInfo class.

NOTE: The actual code to work out the updates needed is quite complex, but you can see it in the accompanying example repo by starting in the SQL DbContext’s SaveChanges and follow the code. I cover how I decoded the entity State in section 14.2.4 of my book “Entity Framework Core in Action”.

The end of all this is there a series of book list changes that must be applied to the NoSQL database to make it match what the data in the SQL database. The trick is to make sure that anything will make the two databases out of step from each other,  which I cover next.

Updating the databases in a secure manner

To make sure my SQL and NoSQL databases always in step I apply the both database updates inside a SQL transaction. That means if either of the updates, SQL or NOSQL, fail then neither are applied. The code below shows how I do that.

private int RunSqlTransactionWithNoSqlWrite(
    DbContext sqlContext, callBaseSaveChanges)
    if (sqlContext.Database.CurrentTransaction != null)
        throw new InvalidOperationException(
            "You can't use the NoSqlBookUpdater if you are using transactions.");

    var applier = new ApplyChangeToNoSql(sqlContext, _noSqlContext);
    using (var transaction = sqlContext.Database.BeginTransaction())
        var result = callBaseSaveChanges(); //Save the SQL changes
        applier.UpdateNoSql(_bookChanges);  //apply changes to NoSql database
        _noSqlContext.SaveChanges();        //And Save to NoSql database
        return result;
  • Use this to sort out formatting

Using a SQL transaction is a nice way to implement this, but you must apply the NoSQL database update at the end of the transaction. That’s because Cosmos DB database provider does not support transactions (most NoSQL don’t support transactions) which means the NoSQL write cannot be rolled back (i.e. undone). That means you can’t use this approach inside another transaction, as you could do something after the NoSQL update that errored (hence the check on line 4).

Here is the sync UdateNoSql method (there is a similar Async version). I use AutoMapper’s  ProjectTo method to create the book list version needed for the display.

public bool UpdateNoSql(IImmutableList<BookChangeInfo> booksToUpdate)
    if (_noSqlContext == null || !booksToUpdate.Any()) return false;

    foreach (var bookToUpdate in booksToUpdate)
        switch (bookToUpdate.State)
            case EntityState.Deleted:
                var noSqlBook = _noSqlContext.Find<BookListNoSql>
            case EntityState.Modified:
                var noSqlBook = _noSqlContext.Find<BookListNoSql>
                var update = _sqlContext.Set<Book>().ProjectTo<BookListNoSql>(SqlToNoSqlMapper)
                    .Single(x =&gt; x.BookId == bookToUpdate.BookId);
                SqlToNoSqlMapper.CreateMapper().Map(update, noSqlBook);
            case EntityState.Added:
                var newBook = _sqlContext.Set<Book>()                    .ProjectTo<BookListNoSql>(SqlToNoSqlMapper)
                    .Single(x => x.BookId == bookToUpdate.BookId);
                throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException();

    return true;
  • Use this to sort out formatting

Alternative ways of make the update robust

I think using a transaction is a simple way to ensure both databases are in step, but as

I have been thinking about this and here are some ideas for you think about. Note: all of these approaches suffer with the the “eventually consistent” problem I mentioned before, i.e. the system will return to the user before the data they were looking at has been updated.

1. Send a message inside a transaction.

In this case you would fire-and-forget a message to another system via a reliable queue, like RabbitMQ or Azure Service Bus. Then it is the job of the system that gets that message to make sure the NoSQL update is repeated until it works. The SaveChanges should return more quickly because queuing the message will be quick.

This is what Jimmy Bogard does in his relational article in his series called Life Beyond Distributed Transactions: An Apostate’s Implementation. Do have a read.

2. Run a background task to fix any failures.

If you added a LastUpdated DateTime to all the SQL entities, and a similar LastUpdated in the NoSQL cached version, then you have a method to find mismatches. This means you could looks for changes since it last run and check the SQL and NoSQL version have matching LastUpdated values (Cosmos DB has a “_ts” Unix-styled timestamp that may be useful).

Either you run the method every x mins (simple, but not that good) or you catch a NoSQL error and run the method looking for updates equal to LastUpdated time of the SQL update.

3. (Advanced) Use the ChangeTracker.StateChanged Event.

There is a really nice, but not much talked about, feature called ChangeTracker.StateChanged event that happens after the SaveChange has completed. This gives you a nice solution that only kicks in for a specific update error.

Basically you could kick off an timer for every NoSQL write, which is cancelled by the NoSQL ChangeTracker.StateChanged event that occurs on a successful write (status changes to Unchanged if successful). If the timer timed out, then you know the NoSQL update failed and you could take remedial action to fix it.

This if advanced stuff needing a ConcurrentDictionary to track each write. I have thought about it, but not implemented it yet. However if a client wanted me to add a CQRS pattern with a quick writes to their application, then this is most likely what I would build.

Limitations in Cosmos support in 2.2 preview

This application was built with EF Core 2.2 and the Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore.Cosmos package 2.2.0-preview3-35497 . This is a very early version of Cosmos DB support in EF Core with some limitations on this application. They are

  • This Cosmos DB preview is very slow! (like hundreds of milliseconds). Version 3 will use a new Cosmos DB SDK, which will be faster.
  • I would have liked the Cosmos id value to be the same as the BookId GUID string.

You can track what is happening to EF Core support for Cosmos here. I will most likely update the application when Version 3 is out and write an article on its performance.

UPDATE: See new article “An in-depth study of Cosmos DB and the EF Core 3.0 database provider” and the updated repo for the version using EF Core 3.0 and the first, non-preview Cosmos DB database provider.


I am very happy to see EF Core supporting NoSQL databases alongside relational databases. It gives me more flexibility in using the right database based on business needs. Also EF Core has the depth and flexibility for me to implement quite complex state management of my database writes, which I needed to implement my CQRS two-database design.

Personally, I like the CQRS two-database design because it too allows me flexibility – I can add it only to the queries that need performance tuning and its also fairly easy to add retrospectively to an application that uses EF Core and relational (SQL) databases. Most performance tuning is done late, and my design fits in with that.

The next stage is to see what performance gains I can get with EF Core version 3. In my original version of CQRS with RavenDB I got very good performance indeed. I’ll let you know how that goes when EF Core 3 is out!

Happy coding.

Handling Entity Framework Core database migrations in production – Part 2

Last Updated: August 9, 2019 | Created: January 30, 2019

This is the second in the series on migrating a database using Entity Framework Core (EF Core). This article looks at applying a migration to a database and follows on from part 1 which covered how to create a migration script. If you haven’t read the part 1 some parts of this article won’t make sense, so here is a very quick review of part 1.

  • There are two types of migrations that can be applied to a database:
    • Adds new tables, columns etc, known as a non-breaking change (easy).
    • Changes columns/tables and needs to copy data, known as a breaking change (hard).
  • There are two main ways to apply a migration to a database
    • Use EF Core migration feature
    • Use EF Core to create a migration and then hand-modify the migration.
    • Use a third-partly migration builder write in C# the migration.
    • Use a SQL database comparison tool to compare databases and output a SQL changes script.
    • Write your own SQL migration scripts by copying EF Core’s SQL.

So, now that you know how to create migration scripts now I’m going to look at the different ways you can apply a migration to a production database, with all the pros, cons and limitations.

TL;DR – summary of the content

NOTE: Click the links to go directly to the section covering that point.

Setting the scene – What sort of application have you got?

In part 1 we were focused on creating migrations that were “valid” and whether the migration is a non-breaking change or breaking change (see quick definition at start of this article, or this link for section in part 1).

Now we are looking at applying a migration to a database, but the options we have depends on the application (or applications) that are accessing the database. Here are questions you need to think about.

  1. Is there only one application accessing that database, or is your application a web app which is scaled-out, i.e. there are multiple versions of your application running at the same time. If your application is scaled-out, then this removes one of the options.
  2. Can you stop your application while you apply a migration to the database, or is your application providing a continuous (24/7) service? Updating continuous service applications bring some challenges when it comes to applying a breaking change.
When it comes to migrating a production database being a bit paranoid is OK.

As I said at the end of part 1 – the scary part comes when you apply a migration to a production database. Changing a database which contains business-critical data needs (demands!) careful planning and testing. You need to think about what you are going to do if (when!) a migration fails with an error.

When considering the different ways to apply a migration you should have in the back of your mind “what happens if there is an error?”. This might push you to a more complex migration approach because its easier to test or revert. I can’t give you rules or suggestions as each system is different but being a bit paranoid about failures isn’t a bad thing to have. I should make you build a system for migrating your application and its database that is more robust.

PART2: How to apply a migration to a database.

The list below gives the different ways you can apply a migration to a database. I list three options for the EF Core case: the first being the simplest, but it has limitations which the other two options don’t have. The SQL migration has no real limitations, but it does need a database migration application tool to apply the SQL scripts only once and in the right order.

Here is the list of ways you can apply a migration.

  1. EF Core migration
    1. Calling context.Database.Migrate() on startup
    2. Calling context.Database.Migrate() via a console app or admin command
    3. Outputting the migration as a SQL script and execute that script on the target database.
  2. SQL migrations
    1. Use a database migration application tool.

In the end, how you apply your migration depends on the type of migration (breaking or non-breaking) and the type of application you are updating (single app, multiple apps running in parallel or an app that mustn’t stop). Here is a diagram to try and convey all these permutations.

The outer dark blue shows that SQL migrations can be applied in all cases, then the lighter, inner boxes show where different types of EF Core migrations can be added. Here are some clarifying notes about the diagram:

  • The diagram shows standard EF migration and hand-modified EF migration, but when I am talking about applying the migration then there is no distinction between the two – we are simple applying an EF Core migration.
  • The “five-stage app update” red box in the diagram represents the complex set of stages you need to apply a breaking change to a application that cannot be stopped. I cover that at the end of the article.

Now I will go through each of the ways of applying a migration in detail.

1a. Calling context.Database.Migrate() on startup

This is by far the easiest way to apply a migration, but it has a big limitation – you should not run multiple instances of the Migrate method at the same time. That can happen if you scale-out a web application. To quote Andrew Lock, “It’s not guaranteed that this will cause you problems, but unless you’re extremely careful about ensuring idempotent updates and error-handling, you’re likely to get into a pickle” – see this section of his post “Running async tasks on app startup in ASP.NET Core”.

Good parts ·         It is relatively easy to implement (see tips)
·         It ensures the database is up to date before your application runs.
Bad parts ·         You must NOT run two or more Migrate methods in parallel.
·         If the migration has an error, then your application won’t be available.
·         It’s hard to diagnose startup errors
Limitations Does not work with continuous service systems
Tips I quite like this option in Andrew Lock’s article for running a migration on startup. I use a similar approach in some of my demo systems that use in-memory databases that need initializing (see this example)
My verdict If you are running a single web app or similar and you can update the system when no one is using it then this might work for you. I don’t use this as many of my systems I work on use scale-out.

1b. Calling context.Database.Migrate() via a console app or admin command

If you can’t run multiple Migrate methods in parallel, then one way to ensure this is to call the Migrate method inside a standalone application designed to just execute the Migrate method. You might add a console application project to your main web app solution which has access to the DbContext and can call Migrate. You can either run it yourself or let your deployment system run it (Note to EF6.x users – this the equivalent of running Migrate.exe, but with the application dll compiled in).

Good parts ·         It works in all situations.
·         Works well with deployment systems.
Bad parts A bit more work.
Limitations – none – , but watch out for continuous, five-stage app update
Tips If your console application takes in a connection string to define which database to apply the migration to, then it will be easier to use in your deployment pipeline.
My verdict A good option if you have a deployment pipeline, as you can execute the console application as part of the deployment. If you are manually applying the migration, then there is the command Update-Database.

1c. Turning EF Core migration into a script and applying it to the database

By using the Script-Migration command EF Core will convert a specific migration, or by default all your migrations, into a SQL script. You can then apply this using something that can execute SQL on the specific database you want updated. You can manually execute the SQL in SQL Server Management Studio, but typically you have something in your release pipeline to do that at the right time.

Good parts ·         It works in all situations.
·         Works well with deployment systems which can use SQL scripts.
·         You can look at the SQL before its run to see if it looks OK.
Bad parts ·         More work than the console app (2b)
·         You need some application to apply the script to the correct database.
Limitations – none – , but watch out for continuous, five-stage app update
Tips The SQL contains code to update the migration history, but you must include the idempotent option in the Script-Migration command to get the checks that stops a migration from being applied twice.
My verdict If you want to use EF Core’s Migrate method, then I would suggest using 2b, the console app. It’s as safe as using the scripts and does the same job. But if you pipeline already works with SQL change scripts then this is a good fit for you.

2a. Using a migration tool to apply a SQL script

If you create a series of SQL migrations scripts, then you need something to a) apply them in the right order and b) apply them only once. EF Core’s migrations contain code that implments the “right order” and “only once” rules, but when we write our own migration scripts we need a tool that will provides those features.

I, and many others, use an open-source library called DbUp that provides these features (and more) and also supports a range of database types. I order my migration scripts alphabetically, e.g. “Script0001 – initial migration”, “Script0002 – add seed data” for DbUp to apply. Just like EF Core migrations, DbUp uses a table to list what migrations have been applied to the database and will only apply a migration if it isn’t in that table.

Other migration tools are available, for instance Octopus Deploy, and various RedGate tools (but I haven’t used them so check they have the correct features).

Good parts ·         It works in all situations.
·         Works well with deployment systems.
Bad parts ·         You have to manage the scripts.
Limitations – none – , but watch out for continuous, five-stage app update
(for DbUp)
·         I make a console application that takes in the connection string and then runs DbUp, so I can use it in my deployment pipeline.
·         For testing I make the method that runs DbUp available to my unit test assembly in a “only run in debug mode” unit test that migrates my local database correctly using my CompareEfSql tool (see the section about testing migrations in part 1 of this series).
My verdict I use this approach on projects that use EF Core.

The application and applying migrations

When you apply a migration to the database you can stop the application or in some circumstances you can apply the migration while it is running. In this section I look at the different options available to you.

1. Stopping the application while you migrate the database

This is the safest option and works with breaking and non-breaking changes, but your users and your business might not be so happy. I call this the “site down for maintenance” approach. In the “site down” approach is you don’t want to stop an application while users are inputting data or maybe finished an order. That’s how you or your company gets a bad reputation.

I had this problem myself back in 2015 and I created a way to warn people that the site was going to close and then stopped all but the admin person from accessing the application. I chose this approach because for the web application I was working on it was a less costly approach than supporting breaking changes while keeping the web app running (I cover applying breaking to a continuous service application later). You may have come across “this site is down for maintenance” on services you use, normally at weekends and overnight.

NOTE: I wrote an article called How to take an ASP.NET MVC web site “Down for maintenance” which you might like to look at – the code was for ASP.NET MVC5 so it will need some work to get it to work with .NET Core, but the idea is still valid.

Applying non-breaking migrations while the application is running

With non-breaking changes you can, in theory, apply them to the database while the old application is running, but there are some issues that can catch you out. For instance, if you added a new, non-null column with no SQL default and old software, which doesn’t know about that new column, tries to INSERT a new row you will get a SQL error because the old software hasn’t provided a value for a non-null column.

But if you know your non-breaking migration doesn’t have a problem then applying the migration while the old application is running provides continuous service to your users. There are various ways to do this, depending on which of the migration application approach you have chosen, one that come to mind are Azure’s staging slots, which have been around for ages, and the newer Azure Pipelines.

Applying breaking changes to a continuous running application: The five-stage app update.

The hardest job is applying a breaking change to a continuously running application. In the diagram showing the different approaches to will see a red box called “five-stage app update” in the top-right. The name comes from the fact that you need to migrate in stages, typically five, as shown in the diagram below.

NOTE: Andrew Lock commended that my “add a non-nullable column” problem I described in the last section can be handled in three stages: a) add new column but as nullable, b) deploy new software that knowns about that column, and c) alter the column to be non-nullable.

Here is a diagram taken from in section 11.5.3 of my book “Entity Framework Core in Action” which shows the five stages needed to add a breaking change that split an existing CustomerAndAddress table into two tables, Customers and Addresses.

As you can see an update like this is complex to create and complex to apply, but that’s the cost of running a continuous system. There aren’t any real alternatives to the five stages, other than you never apply a breaking change to a continuous running system (I have heard one person who said that was their approach).

NOTE: I cover the continuous, five-stage app update in section 11.5.3 on my book “Entity Framework Core in Action” and you can also find a coverage of this in chapter 5 of the book “Building Evolutionary Architectures” by Neil Ford et al.


If the data in your database and the availability of your service is important to your organisation, then you must take a database migration seriously. In part 1 I covered the different ways create a migration script and this article covers how you might apply those migrations to a production database. The aim of this series is to provide you with the options open to you, with their pros, cons and limitations, so that you can take an informed decision about how to handle migrations.

As I said in the first article my first run-ins with EF migrations was with EF6. I know EF6 very well and having written the book “Entity Framework Core in Action” I know EF Core even better. The change from EF6 to EF Core around migrations typifies the change in the whole approach in EF Core.

EF6 had lots of “magic” going on to make it easier to use – automatic migration on startup was one of them. The problem was, when EF6’s “magic” didn’t quite work, then it was hard to sort it out. EF Core’s approach to migrations is that its up to you where and how you use it – no automatic “magic”. And lots of other small changes to migrations in EF Core come from listening to users of EF4 to 6.

So, migrations on production database is scary, but its always been scary. I have given you some insights into the options but that’s only really the minimum for production database changing. Backups, policies, pre-prod testing and deployment pipelines need to be added as required to make a reliable system.

Happy coding.

Handling Entity Framework Core database migrations in production – Part 1

Last Updated: February 4, 2019 | Created: January 29, 2019

Andrew Lock wrote an excellent series called “Running async tasks on app startup in ASP.NET Core” in which he used “migrating a database” as an example of something you could do on startup. In part 3 of the series he covered why migrating a database on startup isn’t always the best choice. I decided to write a series about the different ways you can safely migrate a database, i.e. change the database’s schema, using Entity Framework Core (EF Core).

This is the first part of the series, which looks how to create a migration, while part 2 deals how to apply a migration to a database, specifically a production database. I have used a similar approach to Andrew’s when writing this article, i.e. I try to cover all the way to create a migration script when working with EF Core with their pros, cons and limitations.

NOTE: Andrew and I know each other as we were both writing books for Manning Publications at the same time: Andrew’s book is “ASP.NET Core in Action” and mine is “Entity Framework Core in Action”. We shared the toils and joys of being an author, but Andrew has the harder job with ASP.NET Core – his book is 700 pages long and mine is “only” 500 pages long.

TL;DR – summary of creating a migration

NOTE: Click the links to go directly to the section covering that point.

Setting the scene – what questions should we ask about creating a migration?

There are lots of ways to migrate a database’s schema, and in development you can use almost any approach. But when it comes to migrating a production database (i.e. the one that is being used by real users) then it becomes very serious. Getting it wrong will, at the minimum, inconvenience your users and at worse mangle or lose you (precious) data in your database!

But before we get the scary part of updating a database schema we need to build the migration script that will contain the schema, and possibly data, changes. To build the appropriate migration script we need to ask ourselves some important questions about the type of changes we need to apply to the database. Is the required migrations going to be:

  1. A non-breaking change, i.e. it only adds new columns, tables, etc., which could be applied while the old software was still running, i.e. the old software would work (not break) with the database after the migration.
  2. A breaking change, i.e. some data must be copies or transformed during the migration, could NOT be applied while the old software, i.e. the old software would encounter errors (break) with the database after the migration.

The other part in this article is that we are working with EF Core, which brings both some benefits and constraints. The benefits are that EF Core can, in most cases, create the required migrations automatically. The constraints are that the database after a migration has been applied must match the software Model of the database that EF Core builds by looking at your DbContext and mapped classes – I refer to EF Core’s Model with a capital M, because there is a property called Model in the DbContext that contains the complete mappings between classes and the database.

NOTE: I’m going to cover migrations where you are in control of the control of the classes mapped to the database and the EF Core configuration – sometimes known as the Code-First Approach. The other alternative, which I’m NOT going to cover, is where you directly control the database and you use an EF Core command called scaffolding to create the entity classes and EF Core configuration for you. That’s because migrations are trivial – just re-scaffold your database.

PART1. The five ways to create a migration script

As I said in the last section, any migration script we create must migrate the database to a state that matches EF Core Model. For instance, if a migration added a new column to a table then the entity class mapped to that table must have a property to match that new column. If EF Core’s Model of the database schema does match the database, then you can get errors occurring in queries or writes. I refer to the migration script as creating a “valid” database if it matches EF Core’s Model of that database.

The validity of a migrations created by EF Core isn’t in doubt – EF Core created it so it will be valid. But if we need to edit a migration, or we take on the job of building the migration ourselves, then we need to be very careful that the migration creates a “valid” database as far as EF Core is concerned. This is something I have thought about a lot.

This is the list of ways you can create a migration script.

  • Creating C# migration script
    1. Standard EF Core migration script: use EF Core’s Add-Migration command to create a C# migration script.
    2. Hand-modified EF Core migration script: Use EF Core’s Add-Migration command to create a C# migration script and then hand-edit it to add the bits that EF Core missed.
    3. Use a third-partly migration builder, e.g. FluentMigrator. Tools like this allow you to write your own migration script in C#.
  • Creating SQL migration script.
    1. Use a SQL database comparison tool. This compares the last database schema with the schema of a new database created by EF Core and produces a SQL script that will migrate the old database to the new database schema.
    2. Write your own SQL migration scripts. A competent writer of SQL could produce a SQL migration scripts, with some help by capturing the SQL EF Core would use to create a database.

Here is a summary diagram to give you an overall review of the five approaches, with my personal view on the ease of use and level of limitations.

Now let’s look at each one of these in turn.

1a. Standard EF Core C# migration script

This is the standard migration technique provided by EF Core. It’s well documented by Microsoft, but in summary you run a command called Add-Migration which adds three C# files to your application that contain the changes needed to migrate an existing database using migraions to match the current EF Core setup/configuration.

Good parts ·         Builds a migration automatically
·         You don’t need to learn SQL
·         Includes a revert migration feature
Bad parts
Limitations ·         Standard migration cannot handle breaking changes (but see 1b).
·         No handling of SQL features, e.g. SQL user defined functions (but see 1b).
Tips ·         Watch out for error messages when you run the Add-Migration method. If EF Core detects a change that could lose data it will output an error message, but still creates the migration files. YOU MUST alter the migration script otherwise you will lose data – see section 1b.
·         If your DbContext is in another assembly from where the DbContext is registered you need the MigrationsAssembly method on your build and you most likely you need to implement a IDesignTimeDbContextFactory in the DbContext assembly.
My verdict This is a really easy way to handle migrations and it works well in many cases. The problem is, what happens if the migration doesn’t cover what you want. Thankfully there are many ways to handle that.

Reference: Microsoft’s documentation on creating a migration.

1b. Hand-modified EF Core C# migration script

The nice thing about EF Core’s Add-Migration command is it creates the C# migration files as the starting point, but you can then edit these files yourself to add code to handle breaking changes or add/update SQL parts of the database. Microsoft give an example of handling a breaking change with copying data.

Good parts Same as standard migration +
·         Ability to customise the migration.
·         Ability to include SQL features, e.g. SQL user defined functions.
Bad parts ·         You need to understand what is happing in the database.
·         Can be difficult to decide on how to edit the file, e.g. do you keep everything EF Core added and then alter it, or remove EF Core parts and do it yourself?
Limitations No simple way to check the migration is correct (but see CompareEfSql later).
Tips Same as standard migration.
My verdict Great for small alterations, but big changes can be hard work as you are often mixing C# commands with SQL. That is one reason why I don’t use EF Core migrations.

Reference: Microsoft’s example of hand-modifying a migration.

1c. Use a third-partly C# migration builder

It was Andrew Lock who pointed out to me an approach using the FluentMigrator (see this documentation) to write your migrations. This works similarly to EF migrations, but you have to do all the hard work of detailing the changes. The good thing is FluentMigrator’s commands are very obvious.

Good parts ·         Don’t need to learn SQL.
·         Very obvious what the changes are, i.e. “code as documentation”.
Bad parts ·         You must work out what the changes are yourself.
·         Not guaranteed to produce a “correct” migration (but see CompareEfSql later).
Limitations – none –
Tips Note that FluentMigrator has a “Migration Runners” which can apply the update to the database, but it can also output SQL scripts instead.
My verdict No real experience myself. It feels like it is a clearer syntax that EF Core’s migration, but you have to do all the work yourself.

Reference: FluentMigrator of GitHub.

2a. Use SQL database comparison tool

There are free and commercial tools that will compare two databases and create a SQL change script that will migrate the old database schema to the new database schema.

A “free” comparison tool is built into Visual Studio 2017 (all versions) called SQL Server Object Explorer, under the View tab. If you right-click on a database, then you can access the “Compare Schema” tool (see figure above right) which can produce a SQL change script.

The SQL Server Object Explorer tool is very good, but there isn’t much documentation on this (pity). Other commercial systems include Redgate’s SQL Compare.

Good parts Builds the correct SQL migration script for you.
Bad parts ·         You need a little bit of understanding of databases.
·         No all SQL compare tools produce a revert script.
Limitations Does not handle breaking changes – needs human input.
Tips Watch out for SQL compare tools that outputs every setting under the sun to make sure it gets it right. EF Core’s migrations are straightforward, like “CREATE TABLE…”, so should do that same. If you have any specific settings, then build them into the database create.
My verdict I have used SQL Server Object Explorer on a big migration that was hard to hand-code. Very useful and especially good for people who aren’t comfortable with the SQL language.

2b. Hand-coding SQL migration scripts

This sounds really hard – writing your own SQL migrations, but there is plenty of help on hand, either from SQL compare tools (see above) or by looking at the SQL EF Core would use to create the database. This means I have SQL I can look at and copy to build my SQL migration script.

Good parts Total control over the database structure, including parts that EF Core won’t add, e.g. user defined functions, column constraints, etc.
Bad parts ·         You must understand basic SQL like CREATE TABLE etc.
·         You must work out what the changes are yourself (but there is help)
·         No automatic revert migration.
·         Not guaranteed to produce a “correct” migration (but see CompareEfSql later).
Limitations – none –
Tips ·         I use a unit test that captures the logging output of EF Core’s EnsureCreated method. That gets me the actual SQL EF Core would output. I then look for the differences for the last database. That makes writing the SQL migrations much easier.
·         I unit test a migration by creating a database by applying all the migrations, including the new migration, and then running CompareEfSql to check the database matches EF Core’s current Model of the database.
My verdict This is what I use, with a little help from a CompareEfSql tool. If EF Core’s migration feature is so good, why do I go to all this trouble? Here are my reasons:
·         Total control over the database structure, including parts that EF Core won’t add, e.g. user defined functions, column constraints, etc.
·         Because I am writing the SQL it makes me think about the database aspects of the change – should that property be nullable? do I need an index? etc.
·         Handing breaking changes by hand-modifying EF Core’s migration system isn’t that easy. I might as well stick with SQL migrations. 

This is for developers that wants total control and visibility of the migrations.

You can capture the SQL output by EF Core’s for creating a database but capturing the EF Core’s logging while calling the method EnsureCreated (the EnsureCreated method is meant for creating unit test database). Because setting up logging for EF Core is a little bit complex I added helper methods to my EfCore.TestSupport library to handle that. Here is an example unit test that creates a new SQL database and catches the SQL commands that EF Core produces.

public void CaptureSqlEfCoreCreatesDatabaseToConsole()
    var options = this.CreateUniqueClassOptionsWithLogging<BookContext>(
        log => _output.WriteLine(log.Message));
    using (var context = new BookContext(options))


Let’s look at each line of this code

  • Line 5. This is an EfCore.TestSupport method that creates the options for your DbContext. This version uses a database name that includes the class name. I do this because xUnit test classes are run in parallel, so I want a unique database for this unit test class.
  • Line 6. I use the version of the option builder ending with …WithLogging, which allows me to capture the log outputs. In this case I output the Message part of the log directly to the unit test output window.
  • Lines 11 & 12. First, I ensure the database is deleted so that when I call EnsureCreated a fresh database will be created with a schema defined by the current DbContext’s configuration and mapped classes.

Below is part of the output captured in the unit test output. This provides you with the exact SQL that EF Core would use to create the whole schema. You do need to extract just the parts that relate to your migration, but at least you can cut-and-paste the parts you need into your SQL migration script.

CREATE DATABASE [EfCore.TestSupport-Test_TestEfLogging];
Executed DbCommand (52ms) [Parameters=[], CommandType='Text', CommandTimeout='60']
IF SERVERPROPERTY('EngineEdition') <> 5
Executed DbCommand (5ms) [Parameters=[], CommandType='Text', CommandTimeout='30']
CREATE TABLE [Authors] (
    [AuthorId] int NOT NULL IDENTITY,
    [Name] nvarchar(100) NOT NULL,
    CONSTRAINT [PK_Authors] PRIMARY KEY ([AuthorId])
Executed DbCommand (1ms) [Parameters=[], CommandType='Text', CommandTimeout='30']
    [BookId] int NOT NULL IDENTITY,
    [Title] nvarchar(256) NOT NULL,
-- rest of SQL left out

How to be sure your migration is valid – use CompareEfSql tool

I have mentioned CompareEfSql a few times in the descriptions of creating migrations. This tool compares a database with the model of the database that EF Core creates on first use for a DbContext. This model, accessed via the Model property in the DbContext instance, is built up my EF Core by looking at the DbContext configurations and DbSet and DbQuery properties.

This allows a developer to test an existing database against EF Core Model and gives you error messages if they are different. I find this a very powerful tool which allows me to hand-code SQL migrations and be sure that they are correct (there are some small limitations). Here is an example unit test that will fail if the database schema doesn’t match EF Core’s Model.

public void CompareViaContext()
    var options = … options that point to the database to check;
    using (var context = new BookContext(options))
        var comparer = new CompareEfSql();

        //This will compare EF Core model of the database 
        //with the database that the context's connection points to
        var hasErrors = comparer.CompareEfWithDb(context);

        //The CompareEfWithDb method returns true if there were errors.
        //The comparer.GetAllErrors property returns a string
        //where each error is on a separate line

I love this tool, which is in my EFCore.TestSupport open-source library. It allows me to build migrations and be sure they are going to work. I also run it as a normal unit test and it tells me immediately if I, or another team mate, has changed EF Core’s setup.

You can get a much longer description of this tool in the article called EF Core: taking full control of the database schema and its many features and configurations can be found in the CompareEfSql documentation pages.

NOTE: I build a version of this originally for EF6.x (see this old article), but it was limited because EF6.x didn’t fully expose its internal model. With EF Core I could do so much more (EF Core rocks!) and now I can check almost everything, and because I tap into EF Core’s scaffolder service it works for any database that EF Core supports (see this doc).

Conclusion – Part 1

This part of the series covers creating a valid migration, while part 2 deals with applying a migration to a database. This article lists all the applicable approaches to creating a database migration when working with EF Core – with their pros, cons and limitations. And as you can see EF Core’s Add-Migration command is really good, but it doesn’t cover every situation.

Its up to you to decide what types of migrations you might encounter, and what level of control do you want over the database schema. If you can get away with just using EF Core’s standard migrations (1a) then that makes life easier for you. But if you expect breaking-changes, or you need to set up extra SQL features then you now know the options available to you.

The scary part comes in the part2 – applying a migration to a production database. Changing a database which contains business-critical data needs (demands!) careful planning and testing. You need to think about what you are going to do if (when!) a migration fails with an error.

The original reason I moved away from EF migrations in EF6 was its automatic migration on startup was working fine, until it threw an error on deployment! It was really hard to track down an error in the migration – that alone got me moving away from using EF migrations (read this old article on my thoughts back then).

EF Core’s migration handling is better than EF6: automatic migrations have (thankfully!) gone and EF Core migration are more git-merge friendly, to mention just two changes. But the way I build SQL migration scripts makes me think much more carefully about what I am doing than just running Add-Migration. EF Core is a really great O/RM but it does hide the database too well sometime. Creating SQL migration scripts makes me think through a migration from the database point of view, and I often spot little tweaks to the database, and the C# code, to make the database better or more robust.

Now go to part 2 to see how to apply a migration to a database.

Wrapping your business logic with anti-corruption layers – NET Core

Last Updated: January 21, 2019 | Created: January 21, 2019

There is a concept in Domain-Drive Design (DDD) called the anti-corruption layer which, according to  Microsoft explanation of an anti-corruption layer “Implements a façade or adapter layer between different subsystems that don’t share the same semantics”. DDD uses anti-corruption layers between subsystems (known in DDD as a bounded contexts), say inventory, orders, fulfilment/delivery in an e-commerce system.

But I think the anti-corruption layer concept can also help us inside even small applications. In fact, I expect many of you are already the anti-corruption layer concept in your application, but you call them “adapters”, or “interfaces”, or “ViewModels”.

In this article I’m going to explore the application of the anti-corruption layer not to big subsystems, but to individual NET assemblies in even a small web application, e.g. between the database, the business logic, and the front-end. I hope to show how to implement anti-corruption layers and why they will make your applications easier to write and maintain.

This article was inspired by a problem I encountered in the anti-corruption feature in my EfCore.GenericBizRunner library. I had configured the DTOs (data transfer objects) with the AutoMapper library (which I use for class-to-class mapping) in such a way that some AutoMapper config properties were turning up in my output classes/DTOs. That can cause a bit of a problem when using DTOs in Web APIs, so I fixed it in version 3 (out now).

Other articles about business logic and GenericBizRunner:

The examples I am using are based around ASP.NET Core web applications and Entity Framework Core (EF Core) for database accesses.

TL;DR; – summary

  • DDD defines an anti-corruption layer is an adapter pattern that isolates one part of a system, known in DDD as a bounded context, from another bounded context. Its job is to ensure that the semantics in one bounded concept do not “corrupt” the other bounded concept’s semantics.
  • I think that the anti-corruption layer concept can also be used between assemblies even in small application. Some examples of using an anti-corruption layer in a web application are:
    • Business logic: Your business logic shouldn’t have to concern itself about how the database or the front-end works.
    • Front-end: Human user’s need the data that suits them, not how the database was built.
    • Web API: Your Web API must provide a service that fits the external needs.
  • Anti-corruption layers can help with security too, by only passing the exact data that the other area needs.

Business logic – the classic area for anti-corruption layers

In the book Domain-Driven Design, Eric Evan that “Domain Model” (what I call “business logic”) is  “the heart of the Software” (see Eric Evans book, page 4). Eric goes on to say “When the domain is complex, this is a difficult task, calling for the concentrated effort of talented ad skilled people”.

I wrote an article called “Architecture of Business Layer working with Entity Framework” where I go through a design for handling business logic. That article is worth a read, but in this article I focus on the anti-corruption layers as applied to my business logic.

From Eric Evan’s book, and my own experience, I want to have no distractions when I’m writing my business logic. That translates into the following “don’t wants”:

  • I don’t want to worry about how the database works.
  • I don’t want to worry about how my business logic communicates to a user.
  • I don’t want to know I am using an external service – I just want methods to call.

How I achieve this isolation differs for each part: in this case I use a repository pattern for the database side and my GenericBizRunner library to talk to the front-end. I will describe these two anti-corruption layer implementations later, but first here is a diagram give you an overview of my approach.

I’m now going to describe each of these two anti-corruption layers, i.e.

  1. The database to business logic anti-corruption layer.
  2. The business logic to front-end anti-corruption layer.

1. Implementing the database to business logic anti-corruption layer

Eric Evans talks in his book about separating the business logic from the database and EF Core’s navigational properties makes this possible.  The navigational properties allow the business logic to work with normal (POCO) classes that have properties that references other classes. That means the business logic doesn’t have to know about primary keys, foreign keys, etc.

Let’s look at a specific piece of business logic, placing an order for some books, to show this in action.  The user selects a series of books (front-end lineItems) and the business logic creates an Order containing database LineItems. To do this my business logic, called PalceOrder, has to take in the front-end lineitems and create a new Order class and adds a series of database LineItem classes to it.

That’s fine, but it does need to access the database for two things:

  1. The front-end lineItems contain the primary key of each book, but the database LineItem class needs the Book entity class to create it. This needs a database lookup.
  2. The PlaceOrder code creates a new Order class, but somehow that class needs to be added to the database.

My solution is to use a repository pattern to provide the business logic with methods to handle these two database requirements.  Here is the code, which the business logic accesses via constructor injection via the IPlaceOrderDbAccess interface.

public class PlaceOrderDbAccess : IPlaceOrderDbAccess
    private readonly EfCoreContext _context;

    public PlaceOrderDbAccess(EfCoreContext context)
        _context = context;

    public LineItem BuildLineItem(int bookId, byte numBooks)
        return new LineItem(bookId, _context.Find<Book>(bookId), numBooks);

    public void Add(Order newOrder)                 

This repository is small because it only implements database access methods for just the PlaceOrder business logic. A typical repository has tens or hundreds of methods to be used all over the application, but I don’t find that that approach very useful. I have applied the single responsibility principle to the repository pattern and come up with a per-business logic repository, which I call a “mini-repository”.

The benefit of the mini-repository pattern is that the code is much simpler to write and maintain. It also means later changes in architecture, such as splitting a monolith architecture up into microservices or serverless, is easier to do as the business logic and the associated mini-repository can move together.

NOTE: I haven’t talked about saving the data to the database – in EF Core that means calling the method called SaveChanges. I could have included that in my mini-repository (most likely in the Add method), but my GenericBizRunner library handles calling the SaveChanges method. That allows the library to add validation of the entities to be saved, which I think is important for business logic.

2. Implementing the business logic to front-end anti-corruption layer

The business logic and the front-end have a common goal: to place an order for books. But both parts have their own concepts – the business logic is about applying a business rule while the front-end wants to provide an easy-to-use user interface. So, in fact the anti-corruption cuts both ways – stopping concepts/data that are useful in one assembly from leaking into the other assembly.

Here is a diagram that shows the various NET assemblies and what happens in each stage of the process of running some business logic that accesses the database. It’s quite detailed, but it conveys in one picture all the main things that are going on. I include a commentary on what my GenericBizRunner library is doing – you could of course write your own code to handle these jobs.

NOTE: The Service Layer is an assembly that I use for adapting data from lower layers to the front-end. I got this concept from Dino Esposito (who got it from Martin Fowler). You can get more information in the section on the Service Layer in my article “Six ways to build better Entity Framework (Core and EF6) applications”.

2a. front-end to business logic anti-corruption layer

The front-end might need all sorts of data to show a page to the user, but the business logic only wants the list of books with their unique IDs (primary key in this case). In ASP.NET the HTML page often sends back extra data in case there is an error and the needs to be redisplay. But the business logic doesn’t need that data, and in some case that data is in NET Type that the business logic doesn’t even know about, i.e. a SelectList type. How do we handle that?

The way I handle that is to use AutoMapper in my library to copy the front-end ViewModel/DTO into the input class that my business logic needs. Here is an example from another piece of business logic to change the delivery date of an order. The diagram below displays the front-end focused DTO and the business focused input DTO.

You can see that the front-end needs extra information to show the user what order they are changing (left-hand side of diagram) while on the right-hand side the business logic only needs the first three properties. I (or to be more correct my GenericBizRunner library) uses AutoMapper to copy the data across before the business logic is called.

I think this is a very good example of an anti-corruption process going on. The front-end has extra properties to display a meaningful page to the user, but the business logic doesn’t even know about these front-end only properties. Also, the anti-corruption layer means that the business layer doesn’t have to know about or support front-end types such as SelectList etc.

My GenericBizRunner has a few features to help in a case like this. It provides the front-end DTO with a method called SetupSecondaryData, which can be run to fill in extra data needed for the display to the user – in this case filling the extra properties to show or re-show the display. Here is the code in the ASP.NET Core MVC controller to display and ChangeDelivery page and called the business logic process the user’s request.

public IActionResult ChangeDelivery(int id, 
    [FromServices]IActionService<IChangeDeliverAction> service)
    //This runs SetupSecondaryData to fill in dropdownlist etc.
    var dto = service.GetDto<WebChangeDeliveryDto>(x =>
        x.OrderId = id;
        x.UserId = GetUserId(HttpContext);
    return View(dto);

public IActionResult ChangeDelivery(WebChangeDeliveryDto dto,
    [FromServices]IActionService<IChangeDeliverAction> service)
    if (!ModelState.IsValid)
        //Rerun SetupSecondaryData if need to redisplay
        return View(dto);


    if (!service.Status.HasErrors)
        return RedirectToAction("ConfirmOrder", "Orders", 
            new { dto.OrderId, message = service.Status.Message });

    //Otherwise copy errors in and redisplay the page 
    service.Status.CopyErrorsToModelState(ModelState, dto);
    return View(dto); //redisplay the page, with the errors

You can see on lines 2 and 16 that I inject an instance of the GenericBizRunner, with the specific business logic, referred to via the interface IChangeDeliverAction, as a parameter to the action. This is more efficient than using the normal constructor DI injection as we only inject the exact service we need for each action method.

2b. business logic to front-end anti-corruption layer

Sometimes its also useful to not send everything that the business logic sends back. In the PlaceOrder example the business logic works with classes and (in theory) shouldn’t need to think what the front-end needs. Therefore, the PlaceOrder business logic will return the Order class.

The problem is that Order class might have all sorts of data that is private, like information on the payment, but the front-end only wants to have the primary key of the Order so that it can display an “order success” page. The solution is the same as the input: only copy over the properties that the front-end needs – in this case only copy the OrderId from the Order class that the business logic returns, but only after SaveChanges has been called and the primary key is available.

To make this work I need two things:

  1. An OrderIdDto class with just one property in it called OrderId, which should hold the primary key of the created Order. This is the only bit of data that my front-end needs.
  2. Once SaveChanges has been called I copy over the OrderId property in the Order into the OrderIdDto class’s OrderId property.

Here is the controller action that calls PlaceOrder. Note that the user’s basket of items is held in a cookie, so you will see some code to get and clear the checkout cookie.

public IActionResult PlaceOrder(PlaceOrderInDto dto, 
    [FromServices]IActionService<IPlaceOrderAction> service)
    if (!ModelState.IsValid)
        //model errors so return to checkout page, showing the basket
        return View("Index", FormCheckoutDtoFromCookie(HttpContext));

    //This runs the PlaceOrder business logic
    var orderDto = service.RunBizAction<OrderIdDto>(dto);

    if (!service.Status.HasErrors)
        //If successful I need to clear the checkout cookie
        return RedirectToAction("ConfirmOrder", "Orders", 
            new { orderDto.OrderId, Message = "Your order is confirmed" });

    //There were errors so redisplay the basket from the cookie
    var checkoutDto = FormCheckoutDtoFromCookie(HttpContext);      
    //This copies the errors to the ModelState
    service.Status.CopyErrorsToModelState(ModelState, checkoutDto);
    return View("Index", checkoutDto);

You can see the GenericBizRunner’s call the PlaceOrder’s method on line 13, via the service injected as a parameter. In that call I tell it that the return type should be OrderIdDto, which I have created as a DTO type that GenericBizRunner knows needs to be mapped from the Order class. This means only primary key of the order ends up in the front-end and all the other properties in the Order class is discarded.  The front-end can then pass on this primary key to the ConfirmOrder page which knows how to display a successful order.

GenericBizRunner and Web APIs

As I said at the start I found a problem that placed unwanted properties in the DTOs. To me it matters a lot that I get the data returned from the business logic in the exact format needed by the Web API. This really mattered on one of my client’s project which used Swagger and NSwagStudio to create Angular 6 code to match the Web API. NSwagStudio was amazingly useful, as it automates the creation of the Angular code to interface to the Web APIs, BUT you must get exactly the return type to make it work property.

Now, is this an anti-corruption feature, or just the normal adaption that we are already used to? I think adaption of data is what is mainly going on, but thinking “what anti-corruption issues are there?” is useful. Here are my thoughts:

  • Anti-corruption says we need to only pass the data that is required by the Web API definition.
  • Anti-corruption makes us thing about the data we do pass: is it in the correct form, are the names of the objects right for the Web API, etc.

A look at GenericBizRunner in a controller

With the help of my companion EfCore.GenericServices.AspNetCore library using GenericBizRunner in Web API is pretty simple. Here is a simple example taken from the EfCore.GenericServices.AspNetCore’s ExampleWebAPI. It uses some business logic to create a TodoItem.

[ProducesResponseType(typeof (TodoItem), 201)]
public ActionResult<TodoItem> Post(CreateTodoDto item, 
    [FromServices]IActionService<ICreateTodoBizLogic> service)
    var result = service.RunBizAction<TodoItem>(item);
    return service.Status.Response(this, 
        "GetSingleTodo", new { id = result?.Id }, result);

Let’s look at each line of this code

  • Line 1: I am using Swagger, and I want to tell Swagger a) the type of result it provides, and b) the status code on success.
  • Line 3: It pass in a CreateTodoDto, which contains the properties that the business logic needs to create the TodoItem.
  • Line 4: This is where I inject the BizRunner instance, linked via the interface to the business logic to run.
  • Line 6: I run the business logic, which returns the created TodoItem instance.
  • Lines 7 and 8: The Response method is from the EfCore.GenericServices.AspNetCore library. This form returns a “CreatedAsRoute” result, which fits the definition of the HTTP 201 create response.

In this case I have returned the created class, but I have found in real applications you really don’t want to do that. It turns out that EF Core’ entity classes very often have navigational properties. These are properties that link to other entity classes in the database, e.g. a Book has a collection of Reviews.

The problem is that many SPA’s (single page applications, like Angular and React.js) only want the non-navigational data. In these cases, we need to use DTOs that remove those navigational properties and/or applying some form of transformation to the data when sending database classes to the Web API. Thankfully the GenericBizRunner can do that.


Well, I hope I have made you think about the anti-corruption concept and whether it would improve your business logic. You are most likely doing something similar with adapter patterns and ViewModels/DTO, but you might not call it an anti-corruption layer. That’s fine, but thinking “anti-corruption” can help you implement a good pattern for your business logic.

The down-side of the approach I have described is it does create more code. For small bit of business logic then it might feel like overkill, but when the business logic gets more complicated then I think some separation of concerns pattern is essential. The pattern I have described is one way, but there are plenty of other approaches that achieve the same result.

I created the EfCore.GenericBizRunner library to reduce the amount of extra code I must write, especially in the front-end where it makes it very easy to call. Also, having a standard pattern for my business logic helps me write my business code quickly. I do have to write the mini-repository as well, but that database access code had to go somewhere and my mini-repository per business logic makes it easy to change or performance tune. So far this approach and the GenericBizRunner library has served me well.

Happy coding.

Part 2: Handling data authorization in ASP.NET Core and Entity Framework Core

Last Updated: September 28, 2019 | Created: January 14, 2019

In the first part of this series I looked at authorization in ASP.NET Core, but I only focused on controlling what pages/features the logged in user can access. In this article I’m going to cover how to control what data a user can see and change. By data I mean dynamic information that is stored in a database, such as your home address, what orders you made on an e-commerce site etc. Lots of web sites need to protect their, and your, data – it’s a hot topic now and you really don’t want to get it wrong.

This article focuses on controlling access to data in an ASP.NET Core application using Entity Framework Core (EF Core) to access the database. I have extended the example ASP.NET Core application, I built for the first article and added a new ASP.NET Core MVC web app called DataAuthWebApp  which covers data authorization instead of the feature authentication I have already described in Part 1.  This is an open-source (MIT licence) you can look at to see how it works underneath.

UPDATE: New articles added to this series

There was a lot of interest in these articles so I have written some follow-on articles that answer some of the comments/questions from the first two articles, plus a new, improved example application.

The Part 4 article is worth reading after this article, as it goes much deeper into the design of the data authorisation parts.

NOTE: you can Clone the GitHub repo and run locally – it uses in-memory databases so it will run anywhere and I seed it with test data. The application was written using ASP.NET Core 2.1 and EF Core 2.1: parts of the ASP.NET Identity is changing, but the overall concept will work with any version of ASP.NET Core.

This is a long article, so here are links to the major parts:

TL;DR; – summary

  • You can control what data a user sees by adding [Authorize(…] attributes to your controller actions or configuring razor pages, but it’s an all-or-nothing control – see the Part1 article for how to do this.
  • If you want to filter the rows in a table, say only returning data associated to the current logged-in user, the you need a per-row data protection system – see this article on how to do that.
  • The best way to implement per-row data protection is to put all the code inside EF Core’s DbContext. That way the protection is on be default to every class/table that you want protected.
  • The process to add per-row protection to an entity class (table) is
    • Mark every new row added to a table with a protect key, and…
    • All queries for that entity class/table are filtered using a key provided from the user’s information.
  • This article starts with the protection of personal data, then moves onto the handling grouped user access (known as multi-tenant systems) and finishes with the more complex hierarchical (e.g. manager->staff) system example.
  • All the code in this article is available as an open-source repo on GitHub – see PermissionAccessControl repo.

Setting the Scene – the different ways for protecting data

An ASP.NET Core web application typically has two parts:

  • Static parts that is fixed by the code, e.g. how a page looks or the type of Web API it provides. Typically, you need to update your code and publish it to change the static parts.
  • Dynamic data that can change, e.g. data held in a database or data obtained from external services.

In this article I’m going to look how you can protect data in a database. When we say we want to protect data we are talking about controlling who can see, or change, data stored in the database. If going to discuss two forms of data protection: all-or-nothing and per-row protection – see diagram below

The all-or-nothing data protection is where the user can either access all of the data or can’t access it at all. In ASP.NET applications this is done by placing authorization controls on the controller actions or Razor Pages. This does allow separate control over different types of access to the data, for instance, we can allow a user to read all of the data, but not allow the same user to create, update or delete any of that data.

Many applications only need all-or-nothing data protection, but some application types need per-row protection. Here are some examples:

  • Protection of personal data, e.g. e-commerce systems which hold personal data for its users.
  • Applications with groups of users that need to be isolated from each other. As a developer I’m sure you know GitHub, which is one (extreme) example of such a system. Generally, these types of systems are referred to as multi-tenant systems.
  • Applications where have hierarchical data needs, e.g. where a Manager-to-staff relationship exists and say staff can access one set of data, but the Manager can see all the data their staff can access. I add this as it covers the implementation of filtering data in different ways depending on the type of user, e.g. a manager or a staff user.

The rest of this article is about applications that need per-row protection and how you might implement that with EF Core.

The two elements of per-row protection

In its core per-row protection needs two things:

  1. A protect key in each row used to define who can access that data.
  2. The user needs to provide a corresponding key than can be compared with protect key in the row.  

The protect key I refer to in the list above about could be a unique value related to an individual user, a group of users, or some form of access key. This protect key is sometimes referred to as the user Id or the tenant Id, and in this article I also use the name “OwnedBy”.

Typically, the “OwnedBy” protect key is held in the information about the currently logged-in user. In ASP.NET Core this is called the ClaimsPrincipal, and it contains a series of Claims (see this article for an introduction on Claims and ClaimsPrincipal). Below is a screenshot of the basic claims of a logged-in user called

As you can see the User has a nameidentifier claim, which a unique string for that user, often referred to as the UserId. In the diagram below I use the UserId as the protect key to select only the addresses in the UsersAddresses table that are link this this user. At the same time the UsersAddresses table has a corresponding protect key held in the “OwnedBy” property/column.

This diagram shows the filter part of the per-row protection system: we get a protect key from the ClaimsPrincipal and use it to filter any read of the protected data. The key will vary, and the filter expression will vary, but the approach will be the same in all cases.

The other part is how we add the protect key to an entity class/database table (what I call “marking an entity”), but that I will explain in the implementation section.

Example 1: Implementation of per-row protection on personal data

I am now going to implement the two elements of the protect key, which are:

  1. Marking data with the per-row protect key.
  2. Filtering data using the user-provided protect key.

There are a number of ways to do this, but I will be placing as much of the per-row protection code inside EF Core’s DbContext. This simplifies your own CRUD/business code, and more importantly it makes sure the per-row protection doesn’t get forgotten in the rush to get your code finished.

What I describe below is the same for all per-row protection, but I use the example of protecting data linked to a user. I go into detail of each step in this process, but in later examples I assume you have read this section for the general approach.

1. Marking data with the per-row protect key

The first step is to “mark” each row with the correct protect key, which I refer to at the “OwnedBy” property, i.e. that row is “owned” by the given key. I want to automatically mark any new protected table rows with the correct protect key deep inside the application’s DbContext. I do this by creating an interface, IOwnedBy, (see below) which I apply to every entity class that needs row-level protection. That interface allows me to detect inside SaveChanges any newly created data that needs the OwnedBy” property filled in before saving to the database.

Let’s look at parts of the code that do this, starting with the IOwnedBy interface.

1a. IOwned interface

public interface IOwnedBy
    //This holds the UserId of the person who created it
    string OwnedBy { get; } 
    //This the method to set it
    void SetOwnedBy(string protectKey);

We also create a class called OwnedByBase that implements that interface and inherits that interface, which makes it easier to add the protection code to any entity classes (i.e. classes that are mapped to the database by EF Core). Here is a link to the PersonalData class in the example code that shows this in action.

1b. Override the SaveChanges and calling MarkCreatedItemAsOwnedBy

The next part is override the SaveChanges/SaveChangesAsync in the application’s DbContext. Here is SaveChanges version (Async version the same, but with async), so I have a common method called MarkCreatedItemAsOwnedBy which sets the “OwnedBy” property.

public override int SaveChanges
    (bool acceptAllChangesOnSuccess)
    return base.SaveChanges(acceptAllChangesOnSuccess);

Note the _userId on line 4. That is the UserId taken from the nameidentifier Claim – I show how you get that in the next section.

The MarkCreatedItemAsOwnedBy extension method uses EF Core’s ChangeTracker to find the newly created entities and then checks if the entity has the IOwnedBy interface. The code looks like this:

public static void MarkCreatedItemAsOwnedBy(
    this DbContext context, string userId)
    foreach (var entityEntry in context.ChangeTracker.Entries()
        .Where(e => e.State == EntityState.Added))
        if (entityEntry.Entity is IOwnedBy entityToMark)

The effect of all that is that the OwnedBy property is filled in with the current user’s UserId on any class that has the IOwnedBy interface.

1c. Getting the UserId into the application’s DbContext

Ok, the first two parts are fairly basic, but getting the UserId into the DbContext is a bit more complex. In ASP.NET Core its done by a series of dependency injection (DI) steps. This can be a bit hard to understand so here is a diagram of how it works.

Here is the method extract the UserId from the current user’s Claims.

public class GetClaimsFromUser : IGetClaimsProvider
    public GetClaimsFromUser(IHttpContextAccessor accessor)
        UserId = accessor.HttpContext?
            .User.Claims.SingleOrDefault(x => 
                x.Type == ClaimTypes.NameIdentifier)?.Value;

    public string UserId { get; private set; }

There are lots of null handling because a) there will be no HttpContext on start, and b) the NameIdentifier Claim won’t be there if no one is logged in. This class is registered in DI in the ConfigureServices method inside the Startup class. That means when the application’s DbContext is created the UserIdFromClaims class is injected.

NOTE: In this case I am injecting the UserId, which is found in the nameidentifier Claim. But you will see later that the same process will allow us to access any Claim in the User’s data.

Here is constructor of the application’s DbContext showing the normal options parameter and the added IGetClaimsProvider data.

public class PersonalDbContext : DbContext
    private readonly string _userId;

    public PersonalDbContext(
        DbContextOptions< PersonalDbContext> options, 
        IGetClaimsProvider userData)
        : base(options)
        _userId = userData.UserId;
//... rest of class left out

The end result of all that is the application’s DbContext has access to the user’s id.

2. Filtering per-row protected data

Now that I have the per-row protected data marked with a protect key (in this case the UserId) I need to apply a filter to only allow users with the correct protect key to see that data. You could write your own code to restrict access to certain data, but with EF Core there is a much better approach – Global Query Filters (shortened to Query Filters in this article).

You can apply Query Filters to any entity class used by EF Core and they pre-filter every read of that entity class. Here is the code that sets this up for the entity class PersonalData in the application’s DbContext.

protected override void OnModelCreating
    (ModelBuilder modelBuilder)
        .HasQueryFilter(x => x.OwnedBy == _userId);

In the UserId example that means a user can only retrieve the PersonalData entity classes that have their UserId, and that filtering is done inside the application’s DbContext so you can’t forget.

NOTE: There is a way to remove any Query Filter from an entity class by adding the IgnoreQueryFilters method to any query. Obviously, you need to be careful where to do this as it removed your security, but it’s pretty clear what you are doing.

Example 2: Implementing a multi-tenant system

The first example was dealing with personal data, which is useful but it’s a simple problem which could have written into your CRUD or business logic code. But when it comes more complex per-row protection problems, like multi-tenant systems, then all that code I just showed you is a much better solution to hand-coding data protection.

As an example of a multi-tenant system I’m going to produce an application to manage the stock in a shop. To cover the cost of the development and hosting I want to sell the application to lots of shops. To do this I need to make sure that each shop’s inventory data is kept separate from other shops. To do this I need to:

  1. When a new shop is signed up I need to create a unique protect key for that shop.
  2. An admin person needs to assign a user to a specific shop.
  3. I need to add the shop’s protect key (called ShopKey) as a claim in the logged-in user’s ClaimPrincipal.
  4. I need to add the per-row protection to all the entity classes/tables that are used by a shop.

Let’s look at each of these stages in turn.

1. Creating a unique protect key for each shop

When a new shop wants to join our inventory control application I need to add a new row to the Shops table. This might be done automatically via some signup system or via an admin person. In my example I use the primary key of the new Shop entity class as the protect key.

2. Assigning a user to a specific shop

Someone (or some service) needs to manage the users that can access a shop. One good approach is to make the person who signed up for the service an admin person, and they can register new users to their shop.

There isn’t anything built in to ASP.NET Core’s authorization system to do this, so we need to add an extra class/table to match UserId’s to the shop key. Here is my MultiTenantUser class that holds the data protection information for each shop user.

public class MultiTenantUser : IShopKey
    public string UserId { get; set; }
    public int ShopKey { get; private set; }

    //other code left out for clarity

This is very simple: I use the UserId provided by ASP.NET Core as the primary key and then set the ShopKey to the admin person’s ShopKey.

3. Lookup the user’s ShopKey and add it as a claim in the logged-in user’s ClaimPrincipal.

In the personal data example I used an existing claim, nameidentifier, in the ClaimsPrincipal as the protect key. In the multi-tenant example the big difference is I need to add a externally held protect key to the ClaimsPrincipal.

NOTE: In my implementation I use cookie-base authentication, but I could have used JWT tokens, social logins etc. The approach I share will work with any of these, but the implementation of how you add a new claim to the ClaimsPrincipal will be different for each authentication type.

In part 1, a better way to handle authorization in ASP.NET Core, I already showed how to add extra Claims to the User – in that article it was a Permissions Claim to help with feature authorization. In this article use the same approach as Part 1 to add the ShopKey to the user’s Claims. That is, I tapped into an event in the Authorization Cookie called ‘OnValidatePrincipal’ (here is a link to the lines in the example application startup class that sets that up). This calls the code below:

public class DataCookieValidate
    private readonly DbContextOptions<MultiTenantDbContext> 

    public DataCookieValidate(DbContextOptions<MultiTenantDbContext>
        _multiTenantOptions = multiTenantOptions;

    public async Task ValidateAsync(CookieValidatePrincipalContext context)
        if (context.Principal.Claims.Any(x => 
            x.Type == GetClaimsFromUser.ShopKeyClaimName))

        //No ShopKey in the claims, so we need to add it. 
        //This is only happens once after the user has logged in
        var claims = new List<Claim>();

        //now we lookup the user to find what shop they are linked to
        using (var multiContext = new MultiTenantDbContext(
              _multiTenantOptions, new DummyClaimsFromUser()))
            var userId = context.Principal.Claims.Single(x => 
                 x.Type == ClaimTypes.NameIdentifier).Value;
            var mTUser = multiContext.MultiTenantUsers
                 .SingleOrDefault(x => x.UserId == userId);
            if (mTUser == null)
                throw new InvalidOperationException($"error…”);

        var identity = new ClaimsIdentity(claims, "Cookie");
        var newPrincipal = new ClaimsPrincipal(identity);
        context.ShouldRenew = true;  

NOTE: In Part1 I give you a detailed description of the stages in the ValidateAsync method, but for authorization. However the steps are very similar so see “How do I turn the Roles into a Permissions Claim?” for a step-by-step breakdown of how the code works.

This code is called for every HTTP request, but the first line quickly returns on all but the first request after a login. On first login the ShopKey claim isn’t in the ClaimsPrincipal so it has to look up the user in the MultiTenantUsers table to add that key to the ClaimsPrincipal. The last line of the code updates the ASP.NET Core authentication cookie content so we don’t have to do this again, which means it’s very quick once it has run once.

4. Add the per-row protection to all the entity classes linked to a shop

This is the same process as I described in the first example of personal data, so I’m going to whiz through the code.

First, I need an interface that every protected shop entity class has to have. In this example it’s called IShopKey, and here is it applied to the StockInfo entity class, with lines 7 to 11 implementing the IShopKey requirements.

public class StockInfo : IShopKey
    public int StockInfoId { get; set; }
    public string Name { get; set; }
    public int NumInStock { get; set; }

    public int ShopKey { get; private set; }
    public void SetShopKey(int shopKey)
        ShopKey = shopKey;


    public Shop AtShop { get; set; }

Then I need to extract the ShopKey claim so I can access it in the Shop application’s DbContext. Here is the variant of the GetClaimsProvider that does that.

public class GetClaimsFromUser : IGetClaimsProvider
    public const string ShopKeyClaimName = "ShopId";
    public int ShopKey { get; private set; }

    public GetClaimsFromUser(IHttpContextAccessor accessor)
        var shopKeyString = accessor.HttpContext?
            .User.Claims.SingleOrDefault(x => 
                  x.Type == ShopKeyClaimName)?.Value;
        if (shopKeyString != null)
            int.TryParse(shopKeyString, out var shopKey);
            ShopKey = shopKey;

In this case I convert the claim value, which is a string, back into an integer as that is more efficient in the database. The query filters in the DbContext’s OnModelCreating method look like this.

protected override void OnModelCreating(ModelBuilder modelBuilder)
        .HasQueryFilter(x => x.ShopKey == ShopKey);
        .HasQueryFilter(x => x.ShopKey == ShopKey);
        .HasQueryFilter(x => x.ShopKey == ShopKey);

NOTE: You need to think hard about the query inside the Query Filters, as they are called on every database read of that emtity. Make sure they are as optimised as possible and add indexes to the protect key column in the database for in each protected entity class.

The DbContext parts can be found at:

Example 3 (advanced): Handling hierarchical accesses

UPDATE: I rushed this section and I wasn’t very happy with it. In the new article Part 4, Building a robust and secure data authorization with EF Core, I build a proper implementation of a hierarchical system – I recommend you go and read that instead.

One of my clients needed multi-tenant system that handled the idea of a group manager, district managers etc. that can get data for reports from a series of shops. This means that the filter rules change depending on the how high the user is in the hierarchy.

I have extended my multi-tenant example such that shops can have district managers. This means:

  • A user linked to a shop, say Dress4U, can only access the information about that shop.
  • But district managers can access the group of shops, say Dress4U, Shirt4U and Tie4U, can see information for all the shops they manage.

This requires us to add four new parts to the existing multi-tenant shop inventory application. They are:

  1. The MultiTenantUser class must change to tell us if the user is a shop worker or a district manager.
  2. When a user logs in I need to see if they are a district manager, and if they are I need to add a DistrictManagerId claim to the ClaimsPrincipal.
  3. The Shop and StockInfo need a reference to an (optional) district manager.
  4. The query filters now need to change depending on whether the current user is a shop-only user or a district manager.

I’m not going to show you the code for all the steps in detail as this article is already very long. What I want to focus on is the Query Filters.

In ASP.NET Core if you ask for an instance of the application’s DbContext, then a new one is created per HTTP request (a scoped lifetime). But, for performance reasons EF Core builds the configuration on first use and caches it. This means you can’t change Query Filters using an If-then-else command – instead you can use the ?: operators in the Query Filter’s LINQ expression.

So, for the multi-tenant application with district manager support the OnModelCreating method looks like this.

 protected override void OnModelCreating(
    ModelBuilder modelBuilder)
    //Altered query filter to handle hierarchical access
        x => DistrictManagerId == null
            ? x.ShopKey == ShopKey
            : x.DistrictManagerId == DistrictManagerId);
        x => DistrictManagerId == null 
            ? x.ShopKey == ShopKey
            : x.DistrictManagerId == DistrictManagerId);

    //… other query filters removed for clarity

Note that the DistrictManagerId is injected into the DbContext using the same system and for the ShopKey. Have a look in the DataLayer for the multi-tenant entity classes and the multi-tenant DbContext.


Another long article, but I have given you a lot of details on how to implement a per-row data protection system. As I said at the beginning feature authorisation (covered in Part1) is much more common than per-row data protection. But if you need per-row data protection then this article shows how you can implement it.

I started with an example of using the user’s unique id to control access to personal data. That also introduced all the parts needed for per-row data protection. I then went onto two more complex per-row protection usages: a multi-tenant system and a hierarchical system. The hierarchical system is complex, but one of my clients needed that (and more!), so it is used.

Security is a very important topic, and one that can be tough to implement with no security loopholes. That is why my implementation places all of the per-row data protection is inside the application’s DbContext. That reduces duplication of code and makes sure per-row data protection is on by default. Personally, I also add unit tests that check I haven’t forgotten to add the query filters and any protection interfaces to the entity classes – you can never be too careful on security.

Happy coding.

PS. Don’t forget to sign up to Jerrie Pelser’s, ASP.NET Weekly newsletter if you are interested in ASP.NET or Entity Framework. It is the most important newsletter I get.

Part 1: A better way to handle authorization in ASP.NET Core

Last Updated: September 30, 2019 | Created: December 14, 2018

I was asked by one of my clients to help build a fairly large web application, and their authentication (i.e. checking who is logging in) and authorization (i.e. what pages/feature the logged in user can access) is very complex. From my experience a knew that using ASP.NET’s Role-based approach wouldn’t cut it, and I found the new ASP.NET Core policy-based approach really clever but it needed me to write lots of (boring) policies.

In the end I created a solution for my client and this article describes the authorization part – I call it Roles-to-Permissions (the name will make more sense as you read the article). I have also build an example ASP.NET Core application, with all new code to support this article. This example application is quite different from my client’s system as I tap into ASP.NET Core built-in Identity system (the client’s system needed OAuth2). The example application contains about 60 lines that I copied (with my client’s permission) from the original implementation to create an open-source version (MIT licence) you can use.

This article is part of a series on authorization in ASP.NET Core

UPDATE: New articles added to this series

There was a lot of interest in this article so I have written some follow-on articles that answer some of the comments/questions from the first two articles. If you want to add the features described in this article use the new new, improved example application in the repo PermissionAccessControl2 and look at the Part 7 article.

NOTE: you can Clone the GitHub repo and run locally – it uses in-memory databases so it will run anywhere. The application was written using ASP.NET Core 2.1.

This is a long article, so here links to the major parts:

TL;DR; – summary

  • ASP.NET Role-based authorization system works for systems with simple authorization rules, but it has limitations, like the fact that you have to republish your code if you change the authorization rules.
  • Roles, with names like “Manager” or “ExternalBuyer” makes sense for users (human or external services) as they define a “Use Case” of what the user should be able to do.
  • But Roles don’t work well when applied to ASP.NET Core actions or Razor Pages. Here you need a much more fine-grained solution, with names like “CanRequestHoliday”, “CanApproveHoliday” – I call these Permissions.
  • The solution is to map the user’s Roles to a group of Permissions and store these in the User’s Claims.
  • Then I use ASP.NET Core’s new policy-based authorization system to check that the User’s Permissions Claims contains the Permission placed on the action/page they want to access.
  • There is an open-source example ASP.NET Core application to go with this article.

Setting the Scene – a look at different application security needs

If you understand ASP.NET’s authorization and authentication features then you can skip this section.

There are billions of web applications and the control of what you can do ranges for “anyone can do anything”, e.g. Google search, up to some military systems where access needs keys, biometrics etc. When you need to prove you are a valid user of the system, say by logging in, that is referred to as authentication. Once you are logged in then what you can do is controlled by what is called authorization.

Authorization breaks down into two parts:

  1. What data can I access? For instance, you can see your personal information, but not other people’s personal information.
  2. What features you can use? For instance, are you allowed to change the title of a book that you can see?

NOTE: This article describes a way to manage the second part, what features can you use.

ASP.NET MVC and now ASP.NET Core have various systems to help with authorization and authentication. Some systems only need a simple authorization – I could imagine a very simple e-commerce system could get away with: a) No logged in – browsing, b) Logged in – buying, and c) Admin – Add/Remove items for sale. This could be done using ASP.NET Role-based authentication.

But many business-to-business (B-to-B) systems have more complex authorization needs. For instance, think of a human resources (HR) system where people can request holiday leave and their manager has to approve those requests – there is lot going on inside to ensure only the correct users can use these features.

Systems like my example HR system often end up with lots of complex authorization rules. My experience is that the ASP.NET Role-based authentication starts to have problems implementing this type of system, which is why I created the Roles-to-Permissions code.

Another type of application that could benefit from the Roles-to-Permissions approach are subscription systems, where the features a user can access depend on what subscription they paid for. The Roles-to-Permissions approach can control the features that as user can access based on the subscription they bought.

Role authorization: what is it and what are its limitations?

Roles authorization has been around for years in the ASP.NET MVC application, and I have used it in a number of applications. Here is an example of a ASP.NET Core controller that can only be accessed by logged in users with either the “Staff” Role or the “Manger” role.

[Authorize(Roles = "Staff,Manager")]
public ActionResult Index()
    return View(MyData);

This works for applications that have fairly simple and well-defined Roles, like User/Admin or Staff/Manager/Admin, then Roles is a good choice. But here are some of the problems I have found:

  1. If you have lots of roles you can end up with long Authorize attributes, e.g.  [Authorize(Roles = “Staff,HrManager,BizManager,DevManage,Admin,SuperAdmin”)].
  2. Because Authorize is an attribute then the string has to be a constant, e.g. you can’t have $”{RoleConstants.StaffRole}”. This means if things change you are editing strings, and you could misspell something really easily.
  3. The big one for me is your authorization rules are hard-coded into your code. So, if you want to change who can access a certain action you have to edit the appropriate Authorize attributes and redeploy your application.

My experience from previous applications using Roles-based authorization is me constantly having to go back and edit the authorize Roles part as I develop or refine the application. I have been looking for a better way for some time, and my client’s requirements spurred me on to find something better than Roles authorization.

The architecture of the Roles-to-Permissions system

1. Introducing Roles, Permissions and Modules

It turns out that there is nothing wrong with the idea of a user having Roles. A user (human or an external service) can typically can be described by their function or department, like “Developer” or “HR”, maybe with side Roles like “HolidayAdmin”. Think of Roles as “Use Cases for users.

NOTE: In the example application I have Roles of “Staff”, “Manager”, and “Admin.

But the problem is that Roles aren’t a good fit for the actions in the Controllers. Each Controller action has a little part to play in a Role, or to turn it around, a Role is made up of a series of Controller actions that the Role allows you to access.  I decided I would call the authorization feature on each action a “Permission”, and I used an Enum to define them. A permission Enum member might be called “CanReadHoliday”, “CanRequestHoliday”, “CanApproveHoliday”, etc.

NOTE: In the example application I have Permissions on my ColorController of “ColorRead”, “ColorCreate”, “ColorUpdate”, and “ColorDelete”.

Now that we have permissions we can provide another feature that of controls access to optional features, e.g. features that a user only has based on their subscription to the service. There are many ways of handling features but by combining optional features into the permissions makes it simpler to setup and control.

NOTE:  In the example application I have Permissions called “Feature1” and “Feature2” which are mapped to Modules with the same name.

2. How this is implemented

Having defined my terms, I’m going to give you an overview of the process. It consists of two parts: the login stage and the normal accesses to the web site. The login stage is the most complex with lots of magic goes on in the background. Its basic job is to convert the user’s Roles into Permissions and add it to the User’s information.

I have set up my example application to store the user’s claims in a cookie which is read in with every HTTP request and turned into a ClaimsPrincipal, which can be accessed in ASP.NET Core by the HttpContext property called “User”.

Here is a diagram of that login stage. It might not make a lot of sense yet, but I describe each part in the rest of the article. This diagram is to give you an overview.

UPDATE: In article “Part 3: A better way to handle ASP.NET Core authorization – six months on” I show a way to handle Roles via the Roles-to-Permissions database. That makes the approach more useful with other authentication approaches such a social media, AzureAd etc.

The second part is simpler and covers what happens every time the logged-in user accesses a protected Controller action. Basically, I have a policy-based authorization with dynamic rules that checks the current User has the permission needed to execute the ASP.NET action/razor page.

NOTE: Don’t forget there is example application if you want to look at the actual code.

Now I’m going to build up the Roles-to-Permissions in stages and explain what each part does.

Why I used Enums for the Permissions

One of the down-sides of using Roles is it used strings, and I’m a little bit dyslexic. That means I can type/spell things incorrectly and not notice. Therefore, I wanted something where intellisence would prompt me and if I still typed it incorrectly it would be a compile error. But it turns out there are a couple of other reasons that make using an Enum for the permissions a good idea. Let me explain.

In a big application there could be hundreds of Permissions. This lead to two problems:

  1. If I use Cookie Authorization there is a maximum size of 4096 bytes for the Cookie. If I had hundreds of long strings I might start to fill up the Cookie, and I want some room for other things like my data authorization. If I can store the Enums permissions as a series of integers it’s going to be much smaller than a series of strings.
  2. Secondly, I want to help the Admin person who needs to build the mapping from Roles to permissions. If they need to scroll through hundreds of permission names it could be hard to work out which ones are needed. It turns out Enum members can have attributes, so I can add extra information to help the Admin person.

So, here is part of my Permissions Enum code

public enum Permissions
    //Here is an example of very detailed control over something
    [Display(GroupName = "Color", Name = "Read", Description = "Can read colors")]
    ColorRead = 0x10,
    [Display(GroupName = "Color", Name = "Create", Description = "Can create a color entry")]
    ColorCreate = 0x11,
    [Display(GroupName = "Color", Name = "Update", Description = "Can update a color entry")]
    ColorUpdate = 0x12,
    [Display(GroupName = "Color", Name = "Delete", Description = "Can delete a color entry")]
    ColorDelete = 0x13,

    [Display(GroupName = "UserAdmin", Name = "Read users", Description = "Can list User")]
    UserRead = 0x20,
    //This is an example of grouping multiple actions under one permission
    [Display(GroupName = "UserAdmin", Name = "Alter user", Description = "Can do anything to the User")]
    UserChange = 0x21,

    [Display(GroupName = "Old", Name = "Not used", Description = "example of old permission"
    OldPermissionNotUsed = 0x40,
//... other code left out

The things to note are:

  • I show two types of permissions.
    • First four (lines 4 to 11) are fine-grained permissions, almost one per action.
    • Next two (lines 13 to 17) are more generic, e.g. I have a specific “UserRead”, but then one permission called “UserChange” which allows create, update, delete, lock, change password etc.
  • Line 5, 7, etc. Notice that I give each enum a specific number. If you are operating a 24/7 application with a new version seamlessly replacing the old version, then the Permission numbed mustn’t change otherwise user’s Claims be wrong. That is why I give each enum a specific number.
  • Line 19. I also support the Obsolete attribute, which stops the Permission appearing in the listing. There are plenty of scary stories about reusing a number with unintended consequences. (Also, it you try to use something marked as Obsolete you get a warning).
  • Line 4 etc. I add a Display Attribute to each Permission Enum. This has useful information that I can show lots of useful information to help the person who is building a Role.
  • Line 4, 6, 8, 10. I “Group” permissions that are used in the same place. This makes it easier for the Admin person to find the things they want. I also number in Hex, which gives me 16 possible permissions in a Group (I tried 10 and you could go over that, so 16 is better).

Here is a list of some of the Permissions in my example application listed via the Users->List Permissions nav dropdown.

And the code that produced that output (link to PermissionDisplay class for the whole thing)

public static List<PermissionDisplay> GetPermissionsToDisplay(Type enumType) 
    var result = new List<PermissionDisplay>();
    foreach (var permissionName in Enum.GetNames(enumType))
        var member = enumType.GetMember(permissionName);
        //This allows you to obsolete a permission and it won't be shown as a
        //possible option, but is still there so you won't reuse the number
        var obsoleteAttribute = member[0].GetCustomAttribute<ObsoleteAttribute>();
        if (obsoleteAttribute != null)
        //If there is no DisplayAttribute then the Enum is not used
        var displayAttribute = member[0].GetCustomAttribute<DisplayAttribute>();
        if (displayAttribute == null)

        //Gets the optional PaidForModule that a permission can be linked to
        var moduleAttribute = member[0].GetCustomAttribute<PermissionLinkedToModuleAttribute>();

        var permission = (Permissions)Enum.Parse(enumType, permissionName, false);

        result.Add(new PermissionDisplay(displayAttribute.GroupName, displayAttribute.Name, 
                displayAttribute.Description, permission, moduleAttribute?.PaidForModule.ToString()));

    return result;

How to handle optional/paid-for features?

My client provides a Business-to-Business application and plans to add new features that customers can subscribe to. One way to handle this would be create different Roles, like “Manager”, “ManagerWithFeature1”, “ManagerWithFeature2” or add separate Feature Roles that you have to manually apply to a user. That works but is pretty horrible to manage, and human error could cause problems. My preferred system is mark Permissions linked to a paid-for feature filter them based on the User’s subscriptions.

Marking Permissions as linked to a module is easy to do with the Enums – I just add another attribute. Here an example of Permissions linked to a Module (see line 5).

public enum Permissions
    //… other Permissions removed for clarity

    [Display(GroupName = "Features", Name = "Feature1", Description = "Can access feature1")]
    Feature1Access = 0x30,
    [Display(GroupName = "Features", Name = "Feature2", Description = "Can access feature2")]
    Feature2Access = 0x31

The paid-for modules are again represented by an Enum, but one marked the [Flags] attribute because a user can have multiple modules that they have subscribed to. Here is my PaidForModules Enum code

public enum PaidForModules : long
    None = 0,
    Feature1 = 1,
    Feature2 = 2,
    Feature3 = 4

NOTE I add “: long” to the Enum which gives me up to 64 different modules in my system.

What happens is that Permissions linked to a Module that the user hasn’t subscribe to are filtered out when working out what permissions the user should have – I show how later. This makes the setting up the Roles much simpler, as you build each Role with all the Permissions that make sense for that role, including features mapped to a paid-for module. Then, at login time, the system will remove any Permissions the current user doesn’t have access to. That is simpler for the Admin person and more secure for the application.

How do I turn the Roles into a Permissions Claim?

I my client’s system we uses 0Auth2 authentication, but for this example I used ASP.NET Core IdentityRole to hold the Roles that a user has. That means I can use all of the ASP.NET Core built-in Identity code to set up the Users and Roles. But how do I convert the User’s Roles to a Permissions Claim?

UPDATE: Two improvements added in later articles:

  1. In article called “Part 3: A better way to handle ASP.NET Core authorization – six months on” I show an easier way to turn Roles into permission claims using the UserClaimsPrincipalFactory- see this section.
  2. In the second version of the code in the PermissionAccessControl2 repo I improved/simplified the code called by ‘OnValidatePrincipal’ and provided versions for various extra features I added. See the folder “AuthorizeSetup” for the code.

Again there are few ways to do it, but in the end I tapped into an event in the Authorization Cookie called ‘OnValidatePrincipal’ (here is a link to the lines in the example application startup class). This calls the code below, but be warned it’s pretty complex so here is a summary of the steps it goes through:

  1. If the Claims already have the Permissions claim type then nothing to do so return quickly.
  2. Then we get the Roles the user has from the Role Claim
  3. I need to access my part of the database. I can’t use dependency injection, so I use the extraAuthDbContextOptions, which is a singleton that I can provide at startup.
  4. Then I get all the permissions for all of the roles, with a Distinct to remove unnecessary duplicates.
  5. Then I filter out any permissions that are linked to a Module that the user doesn’t have access to.
  6. Then I add a permissions Claim containing all the Permissions the user is allowed, but packed as hex numbers in a single string so that it doesn’t take up so much room (I used Hex format as it made debugging easier).
  7. Finally I have to create a new ClaimsPrincipal and tell ASP.NET Core to replace the current ClaimsPrincipal, plus set the all-important context.ShouldRenew  to true, which updates the Cookie, otherwise this complex (slow) method on every HTTP request!
public async Task ValidateAsync(CookieValidatePrincipalContext context)
    if (context.Principal.Claims.Any(x => 
        x.Type == PermissionConstants.PackedPermissionClaimType))

    //No permissions in the claims so we need to add it
    //This is only happens once after the user has logged in
    var claims = new List<Claim>();
    foreach (var claim in context.Principal.Claims)

    var usersRoles = context.Principal.Claims
        .Where(x => x.Type == ClaimTypes.Role)
        .Select(x => x.Value)
    //I can't inject the DbContext here because that is dynamic, 
    //but I can pass in the database options because that is a 
    //From that I can create a valid dbContext to access the database
    using (var dbContext = new ExtraAuthorizeDbContext(_extraAuthDbContextOptions))
        //This gets all the permissions, with a distinct to remove duplicates
        var permissionsForUser = await dbContext.RolesToPermissions
            .Where(x => usersRoles.Contains(x.RoleName))
            .SelectMany(x => x.PermissionsInRole)

        //we get the modules this user is allows to see
        var userModules =
                     .SingleOrDefault(x => x.Type == ClaimTypes.Name).Value)
                ?.AllowedPaidForModules ?? PaidForModules.None;
        //Now we remove permissions that are linked to modules that the user has no access to
        var filteredPermissions =
            from permission in permissionsForUser
            let moduleAttr = typeof(Permissions).GetMember(permission.ToString())[0]
            where moduleAttr == null || userModules.HasFlag(moduleAttr.PaidForModule)
            select permission;

          //Now add it to the claim
          claims.Add(new Claim(PermissionConstants.PackedPermissionClaimType,
              filteredPermissions.PackPermissionsIntoString()));    }

    var identity = new ClaimsIdentity(claims, "Cookie");
    var newPrincipal = new ClaimsPrincipal(identity);

    context.ShouldRenew = true;

How do I convert my Permissions into Policy-based authorization?

OK, I now have access to the Permissions via the User’ Claims, but how do I get this turned into something that ASP.NET Core can use for authorization. This is where a .NET developer and friend, Jerrie Pelser helped me.

When I started this project, I emailed Jerrie Pelser, who runs the ASP.NET Weekly newsletter (great newsletter! Do sign up) as I know Jerrie is an expert in authentication & authorization.  He pointed me at a few architectural things and I also found his own article “Creating Authorization Policies dynamically with ASP.NET Core” really helpful.  Jerris’s article showed me how to build policies dynamically, which is exactly what I need.

I’m not going to repeat Jerrie article here (use the link above), but I will show you my PermissionHandler that is used inside the policy to check that the current User’s Permissions claim exists and contains the Permission on the action/Razor Page. It uses an extension method called ThisPermissionIsAllowed which does the check.

public class PermissionHandler : 
    protected override Task HandleRequirementAsync(
        AuthorizationHandlerContext context, 
        PermissionRequirement requirement)
        var permissionsClaim = context.User.Claims
            .SingleOrDefault(c => 
                 c.Type == PermissionConstants.PackedPermissionClaimType);
        // If user does not have the scope claim, get out of here
        if (permissionsClaim == null)
            return Task.CompletedTask;

        if (permissionsClaim.Value

        return Task.CompletedTask;

There are two other classes that are involved in making dynamic policy-based authorisation work. Here are the links to them:

Policies are defined by strings, but as I said I hate strings as I can make a mistake. I therefore created this very simple HasPermission attribute which allows me to apply an Authorize attribute, but using a Permissions Enum

    | AttributeTargets.Class, Inherited = false)]
public class HasPermissionAttribute : AuthorizeAttribute
    public HasPermissionAttribute(Permissions permission) 
       : base(permission.ToString()) { }

That’s pretty simple, but it means I get intellisence when I am adding the Permission.

Putting it all together

So, we have the Permissions in the code and we can apply them using our HasPermissionAttribute to each action we want to protect via authorization. Here is one action taken from the ColorController in my example application.

public ActionResult Index()
    return View(MyData);

We also need to add two tables to whatever database your application uses. The two EF Core entity classes are:

Once the application is up and running an Admin-type user has to:

  1. Create some roles, e.g. “Staff”, “Manager”, etc. using ASP.NET Core Identity code.
  2. Create matching RoleToPermissions for each of the roles, specifying what Permissions map to each Role.

Then, for every new user an Admin person (or some automatic subscription code) has to:

  • Create the user (if an invite-only type application)
  • Add the correct Roles and ModulesForUser for that new user.

Once that is done all the code I have shown you takes over. The user logs in, gets the Permissions and what they can access is managed by ASP.NET Core’s policy-based authentication.

Things I didn’t cover elsewhere

There are a few things I didn’t cover in detail, but here are links to the items:

  • Startup. The important parts about registering things are shown in highlighted lines in this link to the Startup class.  (NOTE: I built the application with ASP.NET Core 2.1, but I know the Identity parts are changing in 2.2, so you might have to update the code I put in the Startup class for newer versions of ASP.NET Core).
  • You don’t need to use ASP.NET Core Identity system at all – I said the client’s version uses an external authentication system. You just have to create a Roles-to-User table so you can assign Roles to each user.
  • I didn’t cover how I Packed/Unpacked the Permissions. You can find the Extension methods for doing that in PermissionPackers.
  • You might want to check for a permission in your razor pages to show/hide links. I created a simple method in the PermissionsExtension class, and used it in the _Layout.cshtml Razor page.


Well that is a long article so well done by getting to the end. I have described an authentication I have built that handles complex authentication rules while being (relatively) easy to understand and manage via the Admin staff. Sure, if you have hundreds of Permissions it’s not to be hard setting up the initial RolesToPermissions, but the Admin has a lot of information to help them.

For me the Roles-to-Permissions approach solves a lot of problems I had in older systems I built using ASP.NET MVC Roles. I have to write some more code, but it makes it a) easier to change the authorization rules and b) helps the Admin person manage applications with lots of Roles/Permissions. I hope it helps you and makes you think of better ways of building better authentication systems for your projects.

UPDATE: See new code in PermissionAccessControl2 repo and new articles.

The new code and articles add more features, and more especially make the code easier to copy into your own application. See article called “Adding the “better ASP.NET Core authorization” code into your app” which gives you a step by step tutorial on how to add the features in this and later articles into your own code.

Further reading

Happy coding. PS. Don’t forget to sign up to Jerrie Pelser’s, ASP.NET Weekly newsletter if you are interested in ASP.NET or Entity Framework. It is the most important newsletter I get

Building high performance database queries using Entity Framework Core and AutoMapper

Last Updated: December 24, 2019 | Created: November 30, 2018

When you are writing Entity Framework Core (EF Core) queries (i.e. reading data from the database) you want them to be quick to run (high performance) and quick to write. It turns out that it’s possible to do that in EF, but the “quick to run” part isn’t that obvious. I make a living around writing EF Core code quickly, and that performs well (I wrote the book, “Entity Framework Core in Action”) and my approach is to use the LINQ Select method (quick to run) and the AutoMapper library (quick to write).

This article is about both “quick to run” and “quick to write”, but majors on AutoMapper, as the Select method is easy to understand, but AutoMapper does take a bit of getting used to. I also mention my EfCore.GenericServices library that uses AutoMapper, which speeds up the writing of database accesses even more.

TR;DR; – summary

  • LINQ Select method normally produces the fastest performing query because they only load what you need, and some calculations can be run in the database (see Posts.Count later) .
  • Writing Select queries contains more lines of code than other query approaches because you have to select each property you want to load.
  • AutoMapper’s ProjectTo method can build the Select query for you, but you need to configure the mapping.
  • Setting up the AutoMapper configuration isn’t total obvious (to me at least) so I give you some examples.
  • My GenericServices library uses AutoMapper and does some of that configuring for you.

This article is aimed at developers who use Microsoft’s Entity Framework library, so I assume you are familiar with C# code and either Entity Framework 6 (EF6.x) or Entity Framework Core library. I don’t assume you know the AutoMapper library, but I don’t detail all the features of AutoMapper and give links to its documentation. The examples in this article use EF Core, but all of the ideas are transferable to EF6.x.

Setting the scene – A quick intro to Entity Framework Core

Database accesses are normally referred to as CRUD operation (Create, Read, Update and Delete), with the read referred to in EF as a query. Queries are normally the most common operation, and often the one you want to be quick (Google and Amazon searches have conditioned us to expect very fast searches). Sometimes the query is a list of things, like products you can buy or trains you could catch, and sometimes you need a single item, like a calendar event you want to change. When the data is stored in a relational database, like SQL Server, a query might need data from multiple parts of the database, called tables, to form the exact data the user wants to see.

The EF Core library makes it easy to access a database by mapping the database tables to .NET classes (known as entity classes), and uses the database pointers (known as foreign keys) between tables to create references (known as navigational properties) to other entity classes. It also turns your LINQ commands into the correct language/format used by the database you want to access. The figure below shows four entity classes, which represent a set of Posts, each with a Blogger who wrote it, and some Tags (via a many-to-many PostTag linking entity class).  The relational properties are represented in red.

In general, the LINQ Select operator in Entity Framework Core (EF Core) can produce database queries that are often perform better than any other approach. This is because the Select method allows you to pick exactly the properties you want, including looking into related classes. This performance gain is especially good when part of the query can be done inside the database, e.g. like counting how many posts a blogger has written (I show that later).

The problem is that writing a Select query, with an assignment for each property, is very repetitious and a bit boring (and boring is bad, as I can make mistakes when I am bored). In this article I show how you can use a library called AutoMapper to automatically build Select queries, which saves you time (and you don’t need to be bored anymore). I also cover one of my libraries that uses AutoMapper to make Create, Read, Update and Delete (known as CRUD) database accesses easier.

In the next section I am going to build some queries to show this database in different ways.

Part 1. Building a simple database query – a list Bloggers

The first display I want to build a list of each blogger, with the number of posts they have written. Here is the type of display I want to show.

This must pick out information from two of entity classes. Now, let’s see the different ways of obtaining that data.

1a. Using Eager loading to load the Post classes

One way to do that would be to use Eager Loading. The code would look like this.

var list = context.Bloggers
    .Include(x => x.Posts)

That gets the data we need, but it pulls in ALL of the post’s content, when I only want to count them. That is very inefficient, because the Posts can be very big. If you need good performance then you don’t want to write your queries this way.

NOTE: You get EVEN WORSE performance if you load the Posts via Lazy Loading, e.g. having a virtual public ICollection<Post> of Posts. That will cause one extra trip to the database for every entry. I get paid to performance tune EF systems and the first thing I look for is Lazy Loading – it’s a major performance drag.

See the Summary of the performance table for detailed timings.

1b. Using a hand-coded Select query

Over the years I have found the LINQ Select queries to be more efficient, where I only select the properties I need into a class I call a Data Transfer Object (DTO), also known as a ViewModel in ASP.NET. Here is my ListBloggersDto class that I am going to copy the data into

public class ListBloggersDto 
    public string Name { get; set; }
    public string EmailAddress { get; set; }
    public int PostsCount { get; set; }

And here is a hand-coded Select query that will only read in the data I actually need.

var list = context.Bloggers.Select(x =>
    new ListBloggersDto
    Name = x.Name,
    EmailAddress = x.EmailAddress,
    PostsCount = x.Posts.Count

This is more efficient as it only loads the data it needs. This is especially true for the count of the Blogger’s Posts – this is done in the database, which stops us loading all the Posts just to count them. The SQL that EF Core would create from this query looks like this (don’t worry if you don’t know SQL – take it from me that is very efficient).

SELECT "x"."Name", "x"."EmailAddress", (
    FROM "Posts" AS "p"
    WHERE "x"."BloggerId" = "p"."BloggerId"
) AS "PostsCount"
FROM "Bloggers" AS "x"

Summary of the performance

In section 12.5.1 on my book “Entity Framework Core in Action” I built a query to load the data to create the book display list (see for live example site) using three approaches. Here is the result of the three different ways of loading the data. As you can see the Select query was the fastest.

NOTE: I didn’t test Lazy loading as EF Core 2.1 wasn’t released when I was writing that chapter, but I can tell you it would be equal (or maybe worse) to the explicit loading timing.

Now, for our much simpler example the Select method would have a sub-millisecond timing because the query is so simple, and would be much quicker than any of the other loading approaches. But the table above gives you a better comparative of a complex query (see my article “Entity Framework Core performance tuning – a worked example” for more on performance)

Quick to write – AutoMapper

Having looked at the “quick to run” part lets move onto the “quick to write” part. The query examples so far are pretty easy to write, but in bigger Select queries you would have to write many assignments, and that gets tedious. This is where AutoMapper comes in, so lets now recreate the same query using AutoMapper.

1c. Using AutoMapper to build the Select query automatically

AutoMapper is what is known as an object-to-object mapper, and can selectively map from one class to another, handling any relationships. AutoMapper can also produce LINQ code via its ProjectTo<T> method (see Queryable Extensions). This allows you to let AutoMapper build your Select queries for you by matching up names. There are three stages to building a Select query using AuthoMapper:

  1. Create your DTO
  2. Add an AutoMapper configuration,
  3. Then use that AutoMapper configuration in your query.

Let’s go through each part in turn

a) Create my DTO

I need to create my DTO, which is the same as the hand-coded one.

public class ListBloggersDto
    public string Name { get; set; }
    public string EmailAddress { get; set; }
    public int PostsCount { get; set; }

The first two properties have the same name and type as properties in the Blogger class, so they are copied. The interesting property is the PostsCount – this is translated as Posts.Count(). That’s a AutoMapper feature which is helpful.

NOTE: AutoMapper can also ‘flatten’ relationships’: what that means it can pick out a one-to-one relationship by joining together the two names without the dot in the middle. You will see this in part 2, where I list each Post, but access the Blogger’s Name by using the name of the relationship, Blogger, followed by the property’s name, Name, i.e. BloggerName.

b) Configure the AutoMapper mapping via dependency injection

There are lots of ways to configure AutoMapper mappings. For NET Core the recommends using AutoMapper’s Profile and assembly scanning with NET Core’s Dependency Injection (DI).

For this example, I use a DI approach to configuring your AutoMapper mapping in an ASP.NET Core web application. First you add a class that inherits AutoMapper’s Profile class, most likely near to where you define your DTOs. In class’s constructor you add one or more CreateMap methods to set up the mapping. Here is a simple example.

public class BloggerDtosProfile : AutoMapper.Profile
    public BloggerDtosProfile()
        CreateMap<Blogger, ListBloggersDto>();
        // Add other CreateMap’s for any other configs

Then you need to call AutoMapper’s AddAutoMapper() method. In ASP.NET Core that would be in the ConfigureServices method in the Startup class, e.g.

public IServiceProvider ConfigureServices(
    IServiceCollection services)
    // … other setups removed for clarity

The AddAutoMapper() method scans all the assemblies looking for all the classes that inherit AutoMapper.Profile class. It then produces a IMapper instance containing the all the Mappings found.

NOTE: I find the configuring AutoMapper is the hard part, as it relies on me remembering to set up the AutoMapper mapping. I have tried a number of ways to make this better and I think in my EfCore.GenericServices I have got it right. In that I write my DTO and then you need to add an empty interface called ILinkToEntity<TEntity>, where TEntity is your class that EF Core maps to the database. Then the setup of EfCore.GenericServices a) finds the DTOs and then uses the TEntity part of the ILinkToEntity<TEntity> interface to, among other things, form the correct AutoMapper mappings.

c) Use AutoMapper in your query

I’m now going to show you a ASP.NET Core controller so that you can see how the DI works, but you can use AutoMapper in any application you like.

public class HomeController : Controller
    private readonly BlogContext _context;
    private readonly IMapper _mapper;

    public HomeController(BlogContext context, IMapper mapper)   
        _context = context;  
        _mapper = mapper;                      

    public IActionResult Index()            
        var dtos = _context.Bloggers

        return View(dtos);         

I have injected by EF Core content and the AutoMapper’s IMapper instance into the controller via the constructor. Then any of my methods in the ASP.NET Core controller. And the SQL code produced is the same as the hand-coded Select earlier in 1b.

For this small DTO then it isn’t worth using AutoMapper, but most applications have hundreds of mappings like this, and classes that contains a lot more properties. This is where AutoMapper comes into its own.

NOTE: If you are generally doing CRUD operations then you should look at my article “GenericServices: A library to provide CRUD front-end services from a EF Core database” that uses AutoMapper and EF Core to make CRUD very simple to do.

AutoMapper is clever and can work out some relationships for you, but for more complex relationships you need to do some more configuring, which I cover in the next part.

Part 2: Handling more complex database queries – list of posts

The next example is a summery list of all the articles, showing the bogger (author), the post title and the tags the post has.

This is a bit more complex, especially around getting the tag names.

2a. List posts using hand-coded select query

Let’s start with the hand-coded LINQ Select query. First, I need to show you the DTO I use to hold the resulting query.

public class ListPostsDto 
    public string BloggerName { get; set; }
    public string Title { get; set; }
    public DateTime LastUpdated { get; set; }
    public List<string> TagNames { get; set; }

Now the hand-coded Select query.

var dtos = context.Posts.Select(x => 
    new ListPostsDto
    BloggerName = x.Blogger.Name,
    Title = x.Title,
    LastUpdated = x.LastUpdated,
    TagNames = x.TagLinks.Select(y => y.Tag.Name).ToList()

Notice the following:

  • Line 4: I can select the Name of the Blogger by using the navigational property. EF can handle any depth of selection, say the Bogger class had a property called Address, which has its own table holding address information, then I could access the Blogger’s Country via x.Blogger.Address.Country. EF produces efficient SQL (an INNER JOIN) to extract the data from the related tables.
  • Line 7: I want a list of all the Tag Name’s associated with this post. I therefore need to use the PostTag linking table to access the Tag names.

The produces fairly efficient (see note below) SQL query by only extracting the data you need.

NOTE: Handling “many” relationships, i.e. ones that return multiple results like the TagNames, is an area where EF Core can have performance issues. If I left off the .ToList() on the TagNames then it would query the database for each ListPostsDt0 (this is known as the N+1 database queries issue). But in EF Core version 2.1, adding the .ToList() turns the load of all the TagNames into one final database query. This is OK, but can still have problems – see my article “Entity Framework Core performance tuning – a worked example” to see an even better way to handle comma separated strings.

2b. List of posts using AutoMapper and special configuration

AutoMapper is clever enough to automatically map the first three properties in the ListPostsDto – in particular it maps the BloggerName property to Blogger.Name. What it can’t do is work out the mapping for the TagNames, so we need to add some configuration the CreateMap method. I use the original ListPostsDto I used in the hand-coded version, but add the AutoMapper configuration code:

public class ListPostsDto
    public string BloggerName { get; set; }
    public string Title { get; set; }
    public DateTime LastUpdated { get; set; }
    public List<string> TagNames { get; set; }

Now the AutoMapper configuration code.

public class PostsDtosProfile : AutoMapper.Profile
    public PostsDtosProfile()
        CreateMap<Post, ListPostsDto>()
                p => p.TagNames, 
                opt => opt.MapFrom(x => 
                    x.TagLinks.Select(y => y.Tag.Name).ToList()));

The ForMember method (lines 6 to 9) takes two parts: the first part defines the property in the DTO that you are mapping (TagNames, on line 7), and the second part (lines 8 to 9) tells AutoMapper how to generate the data to go into the TagNames property from the input class, which is the Post class.

NOTE: AutoMapper automatically turns the BloggerName into Blogger.Name – this is the “flattening” I referred to earlier. This is a very useful feature and makes handling references to a single relationship really easy.

Let’s see the list articles query using AutoMapper’s ProjectTo method. In case I’ll show you a unit test as you might need this in your system. I also show how to create the IMapper variable using a helper method I created, as that is useful too (and checks you created the Profile class correctly).

public void TestProjectionMappingPosts()
    var config = AutoMapperHelpers

    var input = EfTestData.CreateBloggersWithPosts()
    var list = input.ProjectTo<ListPostsDto>().ToList();

    list.First().BloggerName.ShouldEqual("Ada Lovelace");

Where my helper method CreateMapperConfig, looks like this.

NOTE: Technical point about unit testing. ProjectTo<T> need MapperConfiguration when testing, while Map<T> needs IMapper. Have a look at my unit tests of AutoMapper here for a good example of how to write tests that include AutoMapper.

public static MapperConfiguration CreateMapperConfig<T>() 
    where T : Profile, new()
    var config = new MapperConfiguration(cfg =>
        cfg.AddProfile(new T());
    return config ;

This produces the same SQL as the hand-codes example.

NOTE: In EfCore.GenericServices you can configure the AutoMapper mappings by adding a class which inherits from PerDtoConfig<TDto, TEntity>. When EfCore.GenericServices is scanning for DTOs it also looks for matching PerDtoConfig<TDto, TEntity> classes uses that data to alter the AutoMapper’s MapperConfiguration.


Firstly, I showed you how to create high performance queries by using the LINQ Select method. The Select query isn’t obvious – in fact the EF Core documentation on loading relationships doesn’t even list it even though you can load relationships in a Select method. But the ASP.NET Core EF tutorial lists Select as an option, as I was asked to help develop that tutorial 😊. If you want fast and effective queries then think about using the LINQ Select method.

The problem with the Select method is it takes some work to write it, e.g. when Selects have lots of properties in them then they get long and repetitious (i.e. boring). I showed that AutoMapper can help by automatically build the Select query for you. While AutoMapper is a great tool, but it takes a bit of getting used to, especially around the configuration. But when you have lots of queries then it’s worth the effort.

Along the way I talk about my EfCore.GenericServices library, which uses AutoMapper inside. This handles the configuration of AutoMapper for you, which makes it a bit easier. But on the other hand, you need to learn how to set up EfCore.GenericServices. I have written an introductory article, some documentation, and an example application in the repo that you can run locally (it uses an in-memory database, so it runs anywhere), so don’t be afraid to try it.

Happy coding.