My experience of using modular monolith and DDD architectures

Last Updated: July 6, 2021 | Created: February 8, 2021

This article is about my experience of using a Modular Monolith architecture and Domain-Driven Design (DDD) approach on a small, but complex application using ASP.NET Core and EF Core. This isn’t a primer on modular monolith or DDD (but there is a good summary of each with links) but gives my views of the good and bad aspects of each approach.

  1. My experience of using modular monolith and DDD architectures (this article).
  2. My experience of using the Clean Architecture with a Modular Monolith.

I’m also interested in architecture approaches that help me to build applications with a good structure, even when I’m under some time pressure to finish – I want to have rules and patterns than help me to “do the right thing” even when I am under pressure. I’m about to explore this aspect because the I was privileged (?!) to be working on a project that was late😊.

UPDATE – new series

I having finished my book I have spent some time improving the initial modular monolith design described on this article. Please see the new evolving modular monoliths series listed below.

TL;DR – summary

  • The Modular Monolith architecture breaks up the code into independent modules (C# projects) for each of the features needed in your application. Each module only link to other modules that specifically provides services it needs.
  • Domain-Driven Design (DDD) is a holistic approach to understanding, designing and building software applications.
  • I build an application using ASP.NET Core and EF Core using both of these architectural approaches. After this application was finished, I analysed how each approach had worked under time pressure.
  • It was the first time I had used the Modular Monolith architecture, but it came out with flying colours. The code structure consists of 22 projects, and each (other than the ASP.NET Core front-end) are focused on one specific part of the application’s features.
  • I have used DDD a lot and, as I expected, it worked really well in the application. The classes (called entities by DDD) have meaningful named methods to update the data, so it is easy to understand.
  • I also give you my views of the good, bad and possible “cracks” that each approach has.

The architectural approaches covered in this article

At the start of building my application I knew the application would go through three major changes. I therefore wanted architectural approaches that makes it easier to enhance the application. Here are the main approaches I will be talking about:

  1. Modular Monolith: building independent modules for each feature.
  2. DDD: Better separation and control of business logic

NOTE: I used a number of other architectures and patterns that I am not going to describe. They are layered architecture, domain events / integration events, and CQRS database pattern to name but a few.

1. Modular Monolith

A Modular Monolith is an approach where you build and deploy a single application (that’s the “Monolith” part), but you build application in a way that breaks up the code into independent modules for each of the features needed in your application. This approach reduces the dependencies of a module in such as way that you can enhance/change a module without it effecting other modules. The figure below shows you 9 projects that implement two different features in the system. Notice they have only one common (small) project.

The benefits of a Modular Monolith approach over a normal Monolith are:

  • Reduced complexity: Each module only links to code that it specifically needs.
  • Easier to refactor: Changing a module has less or no effect on other modules.
  • Better for teams: Easier for developers to work on different parts of the code.

Links to more detailed information on modular monoliths

NOTE: An alternative to a monolith is to go to a Microservice architecture. Microservice architecture allow lots of developers to work in parallel, but there are lots of issues around communications between each Microservice – read this Microsoft document comparing a Monolith vs. Microservice architecture. The good news is a Modular Monolith architecture is much easier to convert to a Microservice architecture because it is already modular.

2. Domain-Driven Design (DDD)

DDD is holistic approach to understanding, designing and building software application. It comes from the book Domain-Driven Design by Eric Evans. Because DDD covers so many areas I’m only going to talk about the DDD-styled classes mapped to the database (referred to as entity classes in this article) and a quick coverage of bounded contexts.

DDD says your entity classes must control of the data that it contains; therefore, all the properties are read-only with constructors / methods used to create or change the data in an entity class. That way the entity class’s constructors / methods can ensure the create / update follows the business rules for this entity.

NOTE: The above paragraph is super-simplification of what DDD says about entity classes and there is so much more to say. If you are new to DDD then google “DDD entity” and your software language, e.g., C#.

Another DDD term is bounded contexts which is about separating your application into separate parts with very controlled interaction between different bounded context. For example, my application is an e-commerce web site selling book, and I could see that the display of books was different to the customer ordering some books. There is shared data (like the product number and the price the book is sold for) but other than that they are separate.

The figure below shows how I separated the displaying of book and the ordering of books at the database level.

Using DDD’s bounded context technique, the Book bounded context can change its data (other than the product code and sale price) without it effecting the Orders bounded context, and the Orders code can’t change anything in the Books bounded context.

The benefits of DDD over a non-DDD approach are:

  • Protected business rules: The entity classes methods contain most of the business logic.
  • More obvious: entity classes containing methods with meaningful named to call.
  • Reduces complexity: Bounded context breaks an app into separate parts.

Links to more detailed information on DDD

Setting the scene – the application and the time pressure

In 2020 I was updating my book “Entity Framework Core in Action” and my example application was an ASP.NET Core application that sells books called the Book App. In the early chapters the Book App is very simple, as I am describing the basics of EF Core. But in the last section I build a much more complex Book App that I progressively performance tuned, starting with 700 books, then 100,000 books and finally ½ million books. For the Book App to perform well it through three significant enhancement stages.  Here is example of Book App features and display with four different ways to display the books to compare their performance.

At the same time, I was falling behind on getting the book finished. I had planned to finish all the chapters by the end of November 2020 when EF Core 5 was due out. But I only started the enhanced Book App in August 2020 so with 6 chapters to write I was NOT going to finish the book in November. So, the push was on to get things done! (In the end I finished writing the book just before Christmas 2020).

NOTE: The ASP.NET Core application I talk about in this article is available on GitHub. It is in branch Part3 of the repo and can be run locally.

My experience of each architectural approach

As well as experiencing each architectural approach while upgrade the application (what Neal Ford calls evolutionary architecture) I also had the extra experience of building the Book App under a serious time pressure. This type of situation is a great for learning whether the approaches worked or not, which is what I am now going to describe. But first here is a summary for you:

  1. Modular Monolith = Brilliant. First time I had used it and I will use it again!
  2. DDD = Love it: Used it for years and its really good.

Here are more details on each of these three approaches where I point out:

  1. What was good?
  2. What was bad?
  3. How did it fair under time pressure?

1. Modular Monolith

I was already aware of the modular monolith approach, but I hadn’t used this approach in application before. My experience was it worked really well: in fact, it was much better than I thought it would be. I would certainly use this approach again on any medium to large application.

1a. Modular Monolith – what was good?

The first good thing is how the modular monolith compared with the traditional “N-Layer” architecture (shortened to layered architecture). I have used the layered architecture approach many times, usually with four projects, but the modular monolith application has 22 projects, see figure to the right.

This means I know the code in each project is doing one job, and there are only links to other projects that are relevant to a project. That makes it easier to find and understand the code.

Also, I’m much more inclined to refactor the old code as I’m less likely to break something else. In contrast the layered architecture on its own has lots of different features in one project and I can’t be sure what its linked to, which makes me more declined refactor code as it might affect other code.

1b. Modular Monolith – what was bad?

Nothing was really wrong with the modular monolith but working out the project naming convention took some time, but it was super important (see the list of project in the figure above). By having the right naming convention, the name told me a) where in the layered architecture the project was in and b) the end of the name told me what it does. If you are going to try using a modular monolith approach, I recommend you think carefully about your naming convention.

I didn’t change name too often because of a development tool issue (Visual Studio) as you could rename the project, but the underlying folder name wasn’t changed, which makes the GitHub/folder display look wrong. The few I did change required me to rename the project, and then outside Visual Studio rename the folder and then hand-editing the solution file, which is horrible!

NOTE: I have since found a really nice tool that will do a project/folder rename and updates the solution/csproj files on applications that use Git for source control.

Also, I learnt to not end project name with the name of a class e.g., Book class, as that caused problems if you referred to the Book class in that project. That’s why you see projects ending with “s” e.g., “…Books” and “…Orders”.

1c. Modular Monolith – how did it fair under time pressure?

It certainly didn’t slow me down (other the time deliberating over the project naming convention!) and it might have made me a bit faster than the layered architecture because I knew where to go to find the code. If I had come back to work on the app after a few months, then it would be much quicker to find the code I am looking for and it will be easier to change without effecting other features.

I did find me breaking the rules at one point because I was racing to finish the book. The code ended up with 6 different ways to query the database for the book display, and there were a few common parts, like some of the constants used in the sort/filter display and one DTO. Instead of creating a BookApp.ServiceLayer.Common.Books project I just referred to the first project. That’s my bad, but it shows that while the modular monolith approach really helps separate the code, but it does rely on the developers following the rules.

NOTE: I had to go back to the Book App to add a feature to two of the book display query so I took the opportunity to create a project called BookApp.ServiceLayer.DisplayCommon.Books which holds all the common code. That has removed the linking between each query feature and made it clear what code is shared.

2. Domain-Driven Design

I have used DDD many years and I find it an excellent approach which is focuses on the business (domain) issues rather that the technical aspects of the application. Because I have used DDD so much it was second nature to me, but I try to define what works, didn’t work etc. in the Book App, and some feedback from working on client’s applications.

2a. Domain-Driven Design – what was good?

DDD is so massive I am going to only talk about one of the key aspects I use every day – that is the entity class. DDD says your entity classes should be in complete control over the data inside it, and its direct relationships. I therefore make all the business classes and the classes mapped to the database to have read-only properties and use constructors and methods to create or update the data inside.

Making the entity’s properties are read-only means your business logic/validation must be in the entity too. This means:

  • You know exactly where to look for the business logic/validation is – its in the entity with its data.
  • You change an entity by calling a appropriately named method in the entity, e.g. AddReview(…). That makes it crystal clear what you are doing and what parameters it needs.
  • The read-only aspect means you can ONLY update the data via the entity’s method. This is DRY, but more importantly its obvious where to find the code.
  • Your entity can never be in an invalid state because the constructors / methods will check the create/update and return an error if it would make the entity’s data invalid.

Overall, this means using a DDD entity class is so much clearer to create and update than changing a few properties in a normal class. I love the clarity that the names methods provide – its obvious what I am doing.

I already gave you an example of the Books and Orders bounded contexts. That worked really well and was easy to implement once a understood how to use EF Core to map a class to a table as if it was a SQL view.

2b. Domain-Driven Design – what was bad?

One of the downsides of DDD is you have to write more code. The figure below shows this by  comparing a normal (non-DDD) approach on the left against a DDD approach on the right in an ASP.NET Core/EF Core application.

Its not hard to see that you need to write more code, as the non-DDD version on the left is shorter. It might only be five or ten lines, but that mounts up pretty quickly when you have a real application with lots of entity classes and methods.

Having been using DDD for a long time I have built a library called EfCore.GenericServices, which reduces the amount of code you have to write. It does this replacing the repository and the method call with a service. You still have to write the method in the entity class, but that library reduces the rest of the code to a DTO / ViewModel and a service call. The core below how you would use the EfCore.GenericServices library in an ASP.NET Core action method.

public async Task<IActionResult> AddBookReview(AddReviewDto dto, 
    [FromServices] ICrudServicesAsync<BookDbContext> service)
    if (!ModelState.IsValid)
        return View(dto);
    await service.UpdateAndSaveAsync(dto);

    if (service.IsValid)
        //Success path
        return View("BookUpdated", service.Message);

    //Error path
    service.CopyErrorsToModelState(ModelState, dto);
    return View(dto);

Over the years the EfCore.GenericServices library has saved me a LOT of development time. It can’t do everything but its great at handling all the simple Create, Update and Deleting (known as CUD) leaving me to work on more complex parts of the application.

2c. Domain-Driven Design – how did it fair under time pressure?

Yes, DDD does take a bit more time but its (almost) impossible to bypass the way DDD works because of the design. In the Book App it worked really well, but I did use an extra approach known as domain events (see this article about this approach) which made some of the business logic easier to implement.

I didn’t break any DDD rules in the Book App, but two projects I worked on both clients found calling DDD methods for every update didn’t work for their front-end. For instance, one client wanted to use JSON Patch to speed up the front-end (angular) development.

To handle this I came up with the hybrid DDD style where non-business properties are read-write, but data with business logic/validation has to go through methods calls. The hybrid DDD style is a bit of a compromise over DDD, but certainly speeded up the development for my clients.  In retrospect both projects worked well, but I do worry that the hybrid DDD does allow a developer in a hurry to make a property read-write when they shouldn’t. If every entity class is locked down, then no one can break the rules.


I always like to analyse any applications I work on after the project is finished. That’s because when I am still working on a project there is often pressure (often from myself) to “get it done”. By analysing a project after its finished or a key milestone is met, I can look back more dispassionately and see if there is anything to learn from the project.

My main take-away from building the Book App is that the Modular Monolith approach was very good, and I would use it again. The modular monolith approach provides small, focused projects. That means I know all the code in the project is doing one job, and there are only links to other projects that are relevant to a project. That makes it easier to understand, and I’m much more inclined to refactor the old code as I’m less likely to break something else.

I would say that the hardest part of using the Modular Monolith approach was working out the naming convention of the projects, which only goes to prove the quote “There are only two hard things in Computer Science: cache invalidation and naming things” is still true😊.

DDD is an old friend to me and while it needed a bit more lines of code written the result is a rock-solid design where every entity makes sure its data in a valid state. Quite a lot of the validation and simple business logic can live inside the entity class, but business logic that cuts across multiple entities or bounded context can be a challenge. I have an approach to handle that, but I also used a new feature I learnt from a client’s project about a year ago and that helped too.

I hope this article helps you consider these two architectural approaches, or if you are using these approaches, they might spark some ideas. I’m sure many people have their own ideas or experiences so please do leave comments as I’m sure there is more to say on this subject.

Happy coding.

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1 year ago

How does the generic service differ from generic repository? Seems like the same

1 year ago

Hi Jon,

Thanks for the great article! I was wondering: in your ‘BookDdd’ class you have a method called ‘ChangePubDate’. Is there any reason you create a method for this? Why not just use a custom setter to enforce business logic? To me it feels a lot cleaner — but I have no experience with DDD ;-).


2 years ago

Hi Jon, Very knowledgeable article, enjoyed reading thru it.
I have a small question, need a little guidance.

I have to work on an e-commerce .NET backend. The database will have to be from scratch, and I envision 50-70 tables including auth and account.

Which data approach would you recommend?

1) ADO.NET + stored procedures to do complex logics and calculations
2) EF Core DB First Approach – complex calculations in some business layer
3) EF Core Code First Approach – migrations and all

I am tilting towards ADO.NET approach because there would be less load and pressure on the .NET end. The stored procs will be able to handle major complex logics and calculations.
Also ADO.NET will be performance intensive. A major downside of ADO.NET would be slow developments, because I will have to write more C# code in case of ADO.NET.

My 2nd choice is EF Core DB First Approach – I could leverage use of a DBA to maintain and handle the database.

It would be great, if you could take out 2 mins of your time and provide some of your recommendations.

2 years ago
Reply to  Jon P Smith

Hi Jon
Thank you for the reply, really appreciate it.
I understand your points.
Upon pondering over and over again – I would go with EF Core – DB First Approach.

It would give me:
-Developmental speed
-More control on the DB end

I’ll watch your stated video.
I like your blog, reading, and learning every day.

Thank you.

Ferox Neto
3 years ago

Hi Jon,

Thanks for the article, it was very insightful.

I would like to know if in your opinion do you think these two approaches are mutually exclusive, or do you think that they can be used together/combined on the same “Project”?

For example, in a combined apporach you could build each module following DDD principles, and each bounded context could be considered a new module.

However, i do not know if this combined approach would add value to the project or add uncessary complexity.