How to update a database’s schema without using EF Core’s migrate feature

Last Updated: January 27, 2021 | Created: January 26, 2021

This article is aimed at developers that want to use EF Core to access the database but want complete control over their database schema. I decided to write this article after seeing the EF Core Community standup covering the EF Core 6.0 Survey Results. In that video there was a page looking at the ways people deploy changes to production (link to video at that point), and quite a few respondents said they use SQL scripts to update their production database.

It’s not clear if people create those SQL scripts themselves or use EF Core’s Migrate SQL scripts, but Marcus Christensen commented during the Community standup (link to video at that point) said “A lot of projects that I have worked on during the years, has held the db as the one truth for everything, so the switch to code first is not that easy to sell.

To put that in context he was saying that some developers want to retain control of the database’s schema and have EF Core match the given database. EF Core can definitely do that, but in practice it gets a bit more complex (I know because I have done this on real-world applications).

TL;DR – summary

  • If you have a database that isn’t going to change much, then EF Core’s reverse engineering tool can create classes to map to the database and the correct DbContext and configurations.
  • If you are change the database’s schema as the project progresses, then the reverse engineering on its own isn’t such a good idea. I cover three approaches to cover this:
    • Option 0: Have a look at the EF Core 5’s improved migration feature to check it work for you – I will save you time if it can work for your project.
    • Option 1: Use Visual Studio’s extension called EF Core Power Tools. This is reverse engineering on steroids and is designed for repeated database’s schema changes.
    • Option 2: Use the EfCore.SchemaCompare library. This lets you to write EF Core code and update database schema manually and tells you where they differ.  

Setting the scene – what are the issues of updating your database schema yourself?

If you have a database that isn’t changing, then EF Core’s reverse engineering tool as a great fit. This reads your SQL database and creates the classes to map to the database (I call these classes entity classes) and a class you use to access the database, with EF Core configurations/attributes to define things in the EF Core to match your database.

That’s fine for a fixed database as you can take the code the reverse engineering tool output and edit it to work the way you want it to. You can (carefully) alter the code that the reverse engineering tool produces to get the best out of EF Core’s features, like Value Converters, Owned type, Query Filters and so on.

The problems come if you are enhancing the database as the project progresses, because the EF Core’s reverse engineering works, but some things aren’t so good:

  1. The reverse engineering tool has no way to detect useful EF Core features, like Owned Types, Value Converters, Query Filters, Table-per-Hierarchy, Table-per-Type, table splitting, and concurrency tokens, which means you need to edit the entity classes and the EF Core configurations.
  2. You can’t edit the entity classes or the DbContext class because you will be replacing them the next time you change your database. One way around this is to add to the entity classes with another class of the same name – that works because the entity classes are marked as partial.
  3. The entity classes have all the possible navigational relationships added, which can be confusing if some navigational relationships would typically not be added because of certain business rules. Also, you can’t change the entity classes to follow a Domain-Driven Design approach.
  4. A minor point, you need to type in the reverse engineering command, which can be long, every time. I only mention because Option 1 will solve that for you.

So, if you want to have complete control over your database you have a few options, one of which I created (see Option 2). I start with a non-obvious approach considering the title of this article – that is using EF Core to create a migration and tweaking it. I think its worth a quick look at this to make sure you’re not taking on more work than need to – simply skip Option 0 if you are sure you don’t want to use EF Core migrations.

Option 0: Use EF Core’s Migrate feature

I have just finished updating my book Entity Framework Core in Action to EF Core 5 and I completely rewrote many of the chapters from scratch because there was so much change in EF Core (or my understanding of EF Core) – one of those complete rewrites was the chapter on handling database migrations.

I have say I wasn’t a fan of EF Core migration feature, but after writing the migration chapter I’m coming around to using the migration feature. Partly it was because I more experience on real-world EF Core applications, but also some of the new features like the MigrationBuilder.Sql() gives me more control of what the migration does.

The EF Core team want you to at least review, and possibly alter, a migration. Their approach is that the migration is rather like a scaffolded Razor Page (ASP.NET Core example), where it’s a good start, but you might want to alter it. There is a great video on EF Core 5 updated migrations and there was a discussion about this (link to video at the start of that discussion).

NOTE: If you decide to use the migration feature and manually alter the migration you might find Option 2 useful to double check your migration changes still matches EF Core’s Model of the database.

So, you might like to have a look at EF Core migration feature to see if it might work for you. You don’t have to change much in the way you apply the SQL migration scripts, as EF Core team recommends having the migration be apply by scripts anyway.

Option 1: Use Visual Studio’s extension called EF Core Power Tools

In my opinion, if you want to reverse engineer multiple times, then you should use Erik Ejlskov Jensen (known as @ErikEJ on GitHub and Twitter) Visual Studio’s extension called EF Core Power Tools. This allows you to run EF Core’s reverse engineering service via a friendly user interface, but that’s just the start. It provides a ton of options, some not even EF Core’s reverse engineering like reverse engineering SQL stored procs. All your options are stored, which makes subsequent reverse engineering just select and click. The extension also has lots other features creating a diagram of your database based on what your entity classes and EF Core configuration.  

I’m not going to detail all the features in the EF Core Power Tools extension because Erik has done that already. Here are two videos as a starting point, plus a link to the EF Core Power Tools documentation.

So, if you are happy with the general type of output that reverse engineering produces, then the EF Core Power Tools extension is a very helpful tool with extra features over the EF Core reverse engineering tool. EF Core Power Tools also specifically designed for continuous changes to the database, and Erik used it that way in the company he was working for.

NOTE: I talked to Erik and he said they use a SQL Server database project (.sqlproj) to keep the SQL Server schema under source control, and the resulting SQL Server .dacpac files to update the database and EF Core Power Tools to update the code. See this article for how Erik does this.

OPTION 2: Use the EfCore.SchemaCompare library

The problem with any reverse engineering approach is that you aren’t fully in control of the entity classes and the EF Core features. Just as developers want complete control over the database, I also want complete control of my entity classes and what EF Core features a can use. As Jeremy Likness said on the EF Core 6.0 survey video when database-first etc were being talked about  “I want to model the domain properly and model the database property and then use (EF Core) fluent API to map to two together in the right way” (link to video at that point).

I feel the same, and I built a feature I refer to as EfSchemaCompare – the latest version of this (I have version going back to EF6!) is in the repo This library compares EF Core’s view of the database based on the entity classes and the EF Core configuration against any relational database that EF Core supports. That’s because, like EF Core Power Tools, I use EF Core’s reverse engineering service to read the database, so no extra coding for me to do.

This library allows me (and you) to create my own SQL scripts to update the database while using any EF Core feature I need in my code. I can then run the EfSchemaCompare tool and it tells me if my EF Core code matches the database. If they don’t it gives me detailed errors so that I can fix either the database or the EF Core code. Here is a simplified diagram on how EfSchemaCompare works.

The plus side of this is I can write my entity classes any way I like, and normally I use a DDD pattern for my entity classes. I can also use many of the great EF Core features like Owned Types, Value Converters, Query Filters, Table-per-Hierarchy, table splitting, and concurrency tokens in the way I want to. Also, I control the database schema – in the past I have created SQL scripts and applied them to the database using DbUp.

The downside is I have to do more work. The reverse engineering tool or the EF Core migrate feature could do part of the work, but I have decided I want complete control over the entity classes and the EF Core features I use. As I said before, I think the migration feature (and documentation) in EF Core 5 is really good now, but for complex applications, say working with a database that has non-EF Core applications accessing it, then the EfSchemaCompare tool is my go-to solution.

The README file in the EfCore.SchemaCompare repo contains all the documentation on what the library checks and how to call it. I typically create a unit test to check a database – there are lots of options to allow you to provide the connection string of the database you want to test against your entity classes and EF Core configuration provided by your application’s DbContext class.

NOTE: The EfCore.SchemaCompare library only works with EF Core 5. There is a version in the EfCore.TestSuport library version 3.2.0 that works with EF Core 2.1 and EF Core 3.? and the documentation for that can be found in the Old-Docs page. This older version has more limitations than the latest EfCore.SchemaCompare version.


So, if you, like Marcus Christensen, consider “the database as the one truth for everything”, then I have described two (maybe three) options you could use. Taking charge of your database schema/update is a good idea, but it does mean you have to do more work.

Using EF Core’s migration tool, with the ability to alter the migration is the simplest, but some people don’t like that. The reverser engineering/EF Core Power Tools is the next easiest, as it will write the EF Core code for you. But if you want to really tap into EF Core’s features and/or DDD, then these approaches don’t cut it. That’s why I created the many versions of the EfSchemaCompare library.

I have used the EfSchemaCompare library on real-world applications, and I have also worked on client projects that used EF Core’s migration feature. The migration feature is much simpler but sometimes it’s too easy, which means you don’t think enough about what the best schema for your database would be. But that’s not the problem of the migration feature, its our desire/need to quickly move on, because you can change any migration EF Core produces if you want to.

I hope this article was useful to you on your usage of EF Core. Let me know your thoughts on this in the comments.

Happy coding.

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David Rinck
David Rinck
3 years ago

Thanks for going over this! I agree, code-first is a really hard sell, especially on databases that have years of development behind them already. I’ve worked on projects with Option 1, but will definitely be investigating option 2!