In Part 1 of this series, you learnt how to set up the multi-tenant application database so that each tenant had its own set of data, which is private to them. This article explores the administration of a multi-tenant application and the different ways to add new users to a tenant.
The other articles in “Building ASP.NET Core and EF Core multi-tenant apps” series are:
- The database: Using a DataKey to only show data for users in their tenant
- Administration: different ways to add and control tenants and users (this article)
- Versioning your app: Creating different versions to maximise your profits
- Hierarchical multi-tenant: Handling tenants that have sub-tenants
- Advanced techniques around ASP.NET Core Users and their claims
- Using sharding to build multi-tenant apps using EF Core and ASP.NET Core
- Three ways to securely add new users to an application using the AuthP library
- How to take an ASP.NET Core web site “Down for maintenance”
- Three ways to refresh the claims of a logged-in user
Also read the original article that introduced the library called AuthPermissions.AspNetCore library (shortened to AuthP in these articles) which provide pre-built (and tested) code to help you build multi-tenant apps using ASP.NET Core and EF Core.
- Any real application has a lot of code dedicated to administering the application and its users and staff to use that administration code to help your users.
- Multi-tenant applications most likely have lots of users in many groups (called tenants), which make it important to think about making the admin quicker by automating the key pinch-points, like new companies wanting a new tenant and adding more users to their tenant.
- The AuthP library is designed to spread some of the administration, such as adding new users to a tenant, down to a user in the tenant. This means a company (tenant) can self-manage their users.
- The AuthP library relies on ASP.NET Core for registering a new user and securely logging a user in. AuthP uses the userId (a unique string) to add extra data to manage the tenants and what features in your application that a user can use.
- I describe four ways to automate the linking a logged in use to a tenant. Some are good for users that sign up to your service at any time, and other approaches work for a company where users are registered to a common login service, like Azure Active Directory.
- All the examples shown in this article come from the AuthP repo, especially from
- Example3 which is a multi-tenant app, and Example5, which shows how to work with Azure Active Directory.
- Here are links to various useful information and code.
If you are building a multi-tenant application to provide a service to many companies, assuming you are charging for your service, you want lots of tenant and users. Even if you are building an application for a company then it must have lots of divisions to require a multi-tenant design. In both cases there is going to be a lot of administration to be done, such as setting up new tenants, adding user to tenants, altering what users can do as you application is improved.
If you don’t think about the admin parts right at the start you are going to have problems when lots of users join. I should know because I was asked by a client to design a multi-tenant application to handle thousands of users, and admin code was hard work. That’s why I built into the AuthP library ways to automate admin if I could, or pass some admin jobs to the owners of each tenant. But in the end, the features that can’t be automated have to manually executed by your staff.
This article contains both my approach to handling admin in a multi-tenant application and shows AuthP’s admin features and code in the AuthP repo that can automate some of the user admin features.
In an AuthP’s multi-tenant application you need to manage:
- AuthP Roles, which define a group of features, e.g. creating, editing a Role.
- AuthP Tenants, which controls the database filtering, e.g. creating a new tenant.
- AuthP users, which defines the Roles and Tenant that each user has, e.g. adding a new user linked to a specific tenant.
NOTE: Read the original article, which explains what a Role is and how they control what features in your application that certain users can access.
A few of these features can be automated, but you ned some person / people to manage the tenants, users and what they can access. I refer to these users as admin users and they have Roles that allows them to access features that the normal users aren’t allowed to access, such as AuthP admin services.
My experience on a very large multi-tenant application suggests that some tenant owners would appreciate the ability to manage their own users, especially adding and removing users in their tenant which also relieves the load on your admin team. Therefore, the AuthP library support multiple types of admin users. The list shows these admin users ordered with the most useful first:
- App admin: They have access to the admin services across all of the users and all of the tenants. NOTE: an app-level user is not linked to a tenant.
- Tenant admin: They have limited access the admin services and can only see users in their tenant.
- Customer support: In bigger applications it worth having some customer support (also known as help desk users). Their focus is on help tenant users with problems.
- Super admin: When you first deploy your application you need a user to start adding more user, called the Super admin. AuthP library provides a way add that user.
But to make this work, with no possibility of the tenant admin accessing advanced features, you need a clear view of what each admin user can do. The next sections give you a guide to setting up each admin type.
NOTE: Part 3 in this series covers versioning your multi-tenant application which introduces the tenant Roles feature which provides another control over the Roles available in a tenant.
App Admin users can potentially access every admin feature in your application, which means they need to understand what each admin function does and know what the consequences of each function.
Having said that, their day-to-day job is to manage:
- Create, update and delete AuthP’s Roles. Only app admin users are allowed to manage the Roles because Roles control what features in your application a user can access.
- Manage removing users / tenants where they have stopped using you application
- They might have to manually create / update tenants, but as you will see later that can be automated.
App admins are the people that can see every Role, Tenant and User – something that the Tenant admin user can’t do. Here is a list of users that an admin user would see.
The tenant admin is there to manage the users in their tenant. This helps the tenant, because they don’t have to wait for the app admin to manage their users, and it helps reduce the amount of work on the app users to. Typical things a tenant admin user can do are:
- List all the users in their tenant
- Changing the Roles of the users in their tenant
- Invite a user to join the tenant (see the invite a new user section link later in this article).
The AuthP’s method for listing the users requires the DataKey of the current user to be provided (see code below).
var dataKey = User.GetAuthDataKeyFromUser();
var userQuery = _authUsersAdmin.QueryAuthUsers(dataKey);
var usersToShow = await AuthUserDisplay
.TurnIntoDisplayFormat(userQuery.OrderBy(x => x.Email))
If the DataKey isn’t null, then it only returns users with that DataKey, which means a tenant admin user will only see the users in their tenant. The screenshot below shows the tenant admin version of the user list. If you compare the app admin list of users (above) with the tenant admin’s version, you will see:
- Only the users in the 4UInc tenant are shown
- The tenant admin isn’t shown in the list
- Instead of Edit & Delete the only thing they can do is change a user’s Roles.
NOTE: Some Roles contain powerful admin services, so in version 2 of the AuthP library these more powerful Roles are hidden from the tenant user. This means we can allow the tenant admin user to manage the tenant user’s Roles because any Roles they shouldn’t have access to are filtered out. This is described in Part 3.
The other type of admin user staff you might have are customer support users (also known as help desk users). Customer support users are there to help the tenant users when they have problems. I cover this in more detail in the Part 4 article, which covers handling customer problems, but here is a overview of what the Part 4 article covers.
There are some things you can put into your application, like soft delete instead deleting directly from the database, that allows you to undo some things or at least find out who changed something they shouldn’t have. The AuthP library also has a feature that allows a customer support user to access the tenant’s data in a same way as the tenant user can. This allows the customer support user to see the problem from the user’s point of view.
The AuthP’s document page linking to a tenant’s data contains the ILinkToTenantDataService’s method called StartLinkingToTenantDataAsync, which takes in the userId of the user that wants to link to the tenant, and the TenantId of the Tenant you want to access the data. This creates a cookie that overrides the app user’s DataKey (which is null) with the DataKey you want to access. Typically, I add this to the list of tenants, with an action next to each tenant which will set up the link – see this document for a view of what that would look like.
Its important that a user should be very aware they are linked to a tenant’s data as, if they have the same access at a tenant they could create, update and delete data from the tenant. For that reason, I show an extra banner on the screen to warn the user and also show a button to stop linking – see this screenshot form the “Invoice Manager” application when the AppSupport@g1.com links to the “4U Inc.” tenant’s data.
NOTE: You can the updated section of the _layout.cshtml file to add the banner and “Stop Linking” button. It also stops linking if the user that is linking logs out. Note that you need to inject the service into the Razo page (e.g. @inject ILinkToTenantDataService LinkToTenantDataService).
This feature allows the customer support users to access a tenant’s features and data. Without this feature it would be very difficult to understand / fix customer problems. But must give the customer support users access to (some) of the tenant-level features, for instance the ability to list the invoices in the tenant. You can either add the same Roles as a tenant user would have to the customer support users, which will contains write and as read access, or make a special Role which only allows read-only access.
This admin user type solves the problem that when you deploy your application on first time there aren’t any user, because the database is empty. This means you can’t log in to add users – this is a catch-22 problem.
The AuthP library has a solution to this using its bulk load feature to add a Super Admin user who has access to all the application’s features that are protected by the
HasPermission attribute / method. This documentation details the process to create a Super Admin user when deploying an application for the first time.
We started with the higher-level administration feature, like setting up Roles and deleting tenants, but the day-to-day admin job is having new users creating or joining a tenant. If possible, you want to automate as much as you can to a) make it easier to a company sign up to your application, and b) to minimise what the app admin has to do. In this section I describe different approaches for adding tenant users, with the first two automating the process.
But before we look at the different ways to add tenant users, we need to talk about how ASP.NET Core manages users. ASP.NET Core breaks up what a user can do into two parts:
- Authentication features, which handles registration of a new use and a secure login of an existing user.
- Authorisation features, which controls what features the logged-in user can use in your application.
ASP.NET Core’s authentication features a few authenticate providers like the individual user accounts service, but ASP.NET Core also supports OAuth 2.0 and OpenID, which are the industry-standard protocol for authorization, which supports Azure Active Directory, Google login and many many more. This provides a large set of ways to authenticate a user when they are logging in.
And the AuthP library provides the authorization part of a multi-tenant application (see the first article which explains this). AuthP stores each user’s authorization data, such the user’s link to a tenant, in its own DbContent and AuthP has admin code to manage the AuthP authorization date. The link between the authenticated logged-in user and AuthP authorization data is via the authorization user’s Id, referred to as the userId.
This gives you the best of both worlds. You want Microsoft, Google etc to handle the authentication of the user, with all the problems of hacking etc., while the AuthP library provide the extra authorization features to work with more complex situations, like a multi-tenant application.
How a authenticated user is linked to AuthP authorization data depends on whether the list of authenticated users can be read or not. For instance, if you use an Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) you can arrange access to the list of users, while if you are using Google as the source of authenticated user you can’t read the list of all the uses. Here are four ways to handle adding users.
- Automate the creation of a new tenant, for instance code that adds the new user to the individual user accounts authentication provider and then creates the AuthP’ user too. This a good approach when you want your users sign up to your multi-tenant app.
- Have the tenant admin user invite a new user to join a tenant. This approach allows an admin tenant user sends a url to a user which when clicked adds the registered the user (authentication) and sets up their tenant and Roles (authorization).
- Syncing AuthP’s users against the authenticated list of users, for instance if you use an Azure Active Directory (Azure AD). This needs a source of authenticated user you can read and works best when you have a fairly static list of users, say within an application used by a company.
- Handle external login providers, for instance if you allow users to login via Google. This a good approach if you want to allow your users to log in using their Facebook, Twitter, Google etc. logins.
The next four sections explain each approach.
This works if you have a private authentication provider, such as ASP.NET Core’s individual user accounts authentication provider, Azure AD, Auth0, etc. It also works well if you want new users to register / pay for the use of your application.
The steps in implementing the register a new user are:
- Ask for the user for the information you need to register with your private authentication provider, e.g. email and password.
- Register this user as a new user in your private authentication provider and obtain the new user’s userId.
- Now add a AuthP user, using the email / name and the userId of the registered authentication user.
- In a multi-tenant application, you could create a new tenant too, as the user has paid for the use of your application. Also, you can make this user the admin tenant for the new tenant which allows them to invite further users (if that feature is enabled).
UPDATE: AuthP 3.3.0 contains a generic service to set up a tenant, with versioning.
The original example was hand-coded and only worked for a single-tenant, no sharding design and using ASP.NET Core’s individual user accounts. But in the AuthP 3.3.0 release of the library I have created generic version of this feature such that a) its easier to use and b) it works with all types of tenants (single-level, hierarchical, non-sharding/sharding/hybrid) and works with a range of ASP.NET Core authentication handlers. This makes it much easier to add and configure this feature in your own applications. This feature is now referred to as “sign up /versioning” and the documentation can be found here.
The screenshot below shows a new user wanting to sign up to the Invoice Manager. There are three versions to choose with different features and prices. Once the user picks one of the versions (NOTE: versioning your application is covered in Part 3 for this series) they provide their email and password, plus the name of the company to use as the tenant name. Then steps 2 to 4 are run and the user logs in to their new tenant.
Example3 in the AuthP repo provides an example of this approach. A new user can pick which version of the application they want and, after “paying” for the version, then the steps shown above are executed.
NOTE: You can try this yourself. Clone the AuthP repo and run the Example3 ASP.NET Core project. On the home page there is a “Sign up now!” tab in the NavBar with will take you to the “Welcome to the Invoice Manager” page where you can select which version you want and then give an valid email and password plus the name you want to have for your tenant.
Just like the last approach, this works if you have a private authentication provider, such as ASP.NET Core’s individual user accounts authentication provider, Azure AD, Auth0, etc. This allows a tenant admin (or an App admin) to send an invite to a new user to join a tenant.
The steps in implementing the invitation to a new user to a tenant are:
- The tenant admin user creates a url to send to a user to join the admin’s tenant. The URL contains an encrypted parameter of the user’s email and the primary key of the tenant.
- The tenant admin emails this url to the user that they want to join the tenant.
- When the new user clicks the url they are directed to a page which askes for their email and password, plus the hidden encrypted parameter from the url.
- The code then:
- Checks that the encrypted parameter contains the same email as the tenant admin user provided in step 1 so that the link has been copied / hijacked.
- Registers a new user in your private authentication provider using the data provided by user in step 2. From this you can obtain the new user’s userId.
- Adds a AuthP user, using the email / name and the userId of the registered authentication user with a link to the tenant defined in the invite.
UPDATE: AuthP 3.3.0 contains a generic service to invite a new user.
The original example was hand-coded and only worked for a single-tenant, no sharding design and using ASP.NET Core’s individual user accounts. But in the AuthP 3.3.0 release of the library I have created generic version of this feature such that a) its easier to use and b) it works with all types of applications (not-tenant, single-level or hierarchical tenant, non-sharding/sharding/hybrid) and works with a range of ASP.NET Core authentication handlers.. This makes it much easier to add and configure this feature in your own applications. This feature is now referred to as “invite a user” and the documentation can be found here.
The screenshot below shows the created invite URL to send to the invited user. The URL contains an encrypted parameter which holds the AuthP User information (e.g. Roles, Tenant) set by the admin user who created the invite.
NOTE: The invite user documentation contains a detailed explanation on how this works.
This needs a source of authenticated user you can read and works best when you have a fairly static list of users, say within an application used by a company. Also, only an app admin can use this approach as you need to set up which tenant a new user should be linked to.
To use the sync approach, you have to:
ISyncAuthenticationUsers requires you to create a service that will return a list of users with the UserId, Email, and UserName from the authenticated users. The code below shows the sync service for an individual user accounts authentication provider.
public class SyncIndividualAccountUsers : ISyncAuthenticationUsers
private readonly UserManager<IdentityUser> _userManager;
public SyncIndividualAccountUsers(UserManager<IdentityUser> userManager)
_userManager = userManager;
/// This returns the userId, email and UserName of all the users
/// <returns>collection of SyncAuthenticationUser</returns>
public async Task<IEnumerable<SyncAuthenticationUser>>
return await _userManager.Users
.Select(x => new SyncAuthenticationUser(x.Id, x.Email, x.UserName))
NOTE: If you want to use an Azure AD for authenticating users, then see the SyncAzureAdUsers service and the video “AuthPermissions Library – Using Azure Active Directory for login” for how to get permission to read access the Azure AD.
AuthP’s user admin code contains a method called
SyncAndShowChangesAsync, returns the differences (new, change and deleted) between the list of authenticated users and AuthP’s list of users. Typically, you would show these changes before you apply the changes to the AuthP’s users. Here is an example of the type of display you might see.
To apply all the changes to the AuthP’s user clicks the “update all” button that calls the method
ApplySyncChangesAsync. At that point the list of AuthP users is in sync with the authenticated users, but any new users might need Role and / or tenant setting up.
NOTE: Read the documentation on Synchronizing the AuthUsers which gives more information on how to do this, plus links to example code for showing / altering the changes.
The final approach allows you to use external authentication providers such as Google, FaceBook, Twitter etc. This might be more attractive to your users, who don’t have to remember another password.
You should take over the external authentication provider login so that you can check if an AuthP user with that email exists. If a AuthP user doesn’t exist, you need to take the user through a process that links them to a tenant (maybe paying for the service too).
Once an AuthP user exists and set up you need to intercept the OAuth 2.0 authentication to add the AuthP claims. You do this via ASP.NET Core’s OAuth 2.0 OnCreatingTicket event and get the IClaimsCalculator service. This service contains the GetClaimsForAuthUserAsync method which takes in the user’s userId and will return claims to be added to the logged in user.
Useful links on this approach are:
- Microsoft’s Persist additional claims and tokens from external providers in ASP.NET Core
- External Identity Provider with ASP.NET Core Identity by Marinko Spasojevic
- External Login Providers in ASP.NET Core by Rui Figueiredo
Adding proper administration features to an application is always important. But when your application is multi-tenant application you want your tenants to find your application is easy to use. And on the other side you need to control the admin features such that a tenant can’t break or bypass the intended features in the tenant.
And in a multi-tenant application it’s not just logging in, its also about adding a new user to a tenant. That’s why I explained the “take over the registering of a new user” and the “Have the tenant admin user invite a new user to join a tenant” first – they take a bit more code, but they automate adding of a new user, which removes the load on your admin people.
In the next article you will learn about AuthP’s tenant Roles, which gives you more control of what a tenant user can do. In particular you can offer different versions of your code, e.g. Free, Pro, Enterprise, which might help to reach more people, some of which will pay extra for the extra features in your higher levels.
I hope this and the other articles in this series help you in understanding how you might build multi-tenant application. The AuthP library and the AuthP repo contain a large body of admin features, useful example applications, plus lots of documentation.